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First magnetic seismology of the CME reconnection outflow layer in the low corona with 2.5-D MHD simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2013-09-26 10:41

For conditions observed in the low corona, we perform 2.5-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) at the surface of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We match the observed time development of the KHI with simulated growth from 110 MHD experiments representing a parametric range of realistic magnetic field strengths and orientations and two key values of the velocity shear, ΔV, inferred from observations. The results are field strengths Be≈ 8?9 G and Bs≈ 10?11 G in the CME reconnection outflow layer and the surrounding sheath, respectively, for ΔV≈770kms-1; for nearly perpendicular orientation (1? tilt) of Bs with respect to the flow plane, Be can be tilted between 3 and 10?; tilting Bs up to 15? would slow the growth of the KHI by too much. Our simulations also reveal hidden dynamics and structure of the CME ejecta layer such as plasma mixing via reconnection in the vortices.

Authors: Nykyri, K. and Foullon, C.
Projects: SDO-AIA

Publication Status: Geophysical Research Letters Vol. 40 (16), pp. 4154 ? 4159
Last Modified: 2013-09-30 10:00
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Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability of the CME Reconnection Outflow Layer in the Low Corona  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2013-09-26 10:37

New capabilities for studying the Sun allow us to image for the first time the magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability developing at the surface of a fast coronal mass ejecta (CME) less than 150 Mm above the solar surface. We conduct a detailed observational investigation of this phenomenon, observed off the east solar limb on 2010 November 3, in the EUV with SDO/AIA. In conjunction with STEREO-B/EUVI, we derive the CME source surface position. We ascertain the timing and early evolution of the CME outflow leading to the instability onset. We perform image and spectral analysis, exploring the CME plasma structuring and its parabolic flow pattern. As we evaluate and validate the consistency of the observations with theoretical considerations and predictions, we take the view that the ejecta layer corresponds to a reconnection outflow layer surrounding the erupting flux rope, accounting for the timing, high temperature (~11.6 MK), and high flow shear (~680 km s?1) on the unstable CME northern flank and for the observed asymmetry between the CME flanks. From the irregular evolution of the CME flow pattern, we infer a shear gradient consistent with expected spatial flow variations across the KH-unstable flank. The KH phenomenon observed is tied to the first stage of a linked flare-CME event.

Authors: Foullon, C., Verwichte, E., Nykyri, K., Aschwanden, M.J., Hannah, I. G.
Projects: GOES X-rays ,RHESSI,SDO-AIA,SoHO-EIT,SoHO-MDI,SoHO-LASCO,STEREO

Publication Status: ApJ Vol. 767 (2), article 170
Last Modified: 2013-09-30 10:00
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Plasmoid Releases in the Heliospheric Current Sheet and Associated Coronal Hole Boundary Layer Evolution  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2011-05-17 12:13

This abstract was corrupted following database problems and is being recovered. It will be restored as quickly as possible. Any questions, please send them to Alisdair. Sorry for any incovenience.


Authors: Foullon, C., Lavraud, B., Luhmann, J.G., Farrugia, C.J., Retinò, A., Simunac, K.D.C., Wardle, N.C., Galvin, A.B., Kucharek, H., Owen, C.J., Popecki, M., Opitz, A. and Sauvaud, J.-A.
Projects: SoHO-LASCO,STEREO

Publication Status: ApJ (in press)
Last Modified: 2011-05-17 19:26
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Magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability at the Sun  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2011-01-21 00:05

Flows and instabilities play a major role in the dynamics of magnetised plasmas including the solar corona, magnetospheric and heliospheric boundaries, cometary tails and astrophysical jets. The non-linear effects, multi-scale and microphysical interactions inherent to the flow-driven instabilities are believed to play a role, e.g., in plasma entry across a discontinuity, generation of turbulence and enhanced drag. However, in order to clarify the efficiency of macroscopic instabilities in these processes, we lack proper knowledge of their overall morphological features. Here we show the first observations of the temporally and spatially resolved evolution of the magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the solar corona. Unprecedented high-resolution imaging observations of vortices developing at the surface of a fast coronal mass ejecta are taken by the new Solar Dynamics Observatory, validating theories of the non-linear dynamics involved. The new findings are a corner stone for developing a unifying theory on flow-driven instabilities in rarefied magnetised plasmas, important to shed light on the fundamental processes at work in key regions of the Sun-Earth system.

Authors: Foullon, C., Verwichte, E., Nakariakov, V.M., Nykyri, K. and Farrugia, C.J.
Projects: SDO-AIA

Publication Status: ApJL, accepted (20-01-2011)
Last Modified: 2011-01-21 08:46
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From large-scale loops to the sites of dense flaring loops: preferential conditions for long-period pulsations in solar flares  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2010-06-06 07:43

Long-period quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) of solar flares are a class apart from shorter period events. By involving an external resonator, the mechanism they call upon differs from traditional QPP models, but has wider applications. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of spatially-resolved QPPs, with periods around 10 min, observed in the X-ray spectrum primarily at energies between 3 and 25 keV. Complementary observations obtained in Hα and radio emission in the kHz to GHz frequency range, together with an analysis of the X-ray plasma properties provide a comprehensive picture that is consistent with a dense flaring loop subject to periodic energisation and thermalisation. The QPPs obtained in Hα and Type III radio bursts, with similar periods as the QPPs in soft X-ray, have the longest periods ever reported for those types of datasets. We also report 1-2 GHz radio emission, concurrent with but unrestricted to the QPP time intervals, which is multi-structured at regularly separated narrowband frequencies and modulated with ~18-min periods. This radio emission can be attributed to the presence of multiple 'quiet' large-scale loops in the background corona. Large-scale but shorter inner loops below may act as preferential resonators for the QPPs. The observations support interpretations consistent with both inner and outer loops subject to fast kink magnetohydrodynamic waves. Finally, X-ray imaging indicates the presence of double loop-top sources in the flaring sites, which could be the particular signatures of the magnetically-linked inner loops. We discuss the preferential conditions and the driving mechanisms causing the repeated flaring.

Authors: Foullon, C., Fletcher, L., Hannah I.G., Verwichte, E., Cecconi, B., Nakariakov, V.M., Phillips K.J.H. and Tan, B.L.
Projects: RHESSI

Publication Status: ApJ (accepted)
Last Modified: 2010-06-07 08:04
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Independent Signals from the Influence of Internal Magnetic Layers on the Frequencies of Solar P-modes  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2010-03-15 14:13

The discovery that p-mode frequencies of low degree do not follow changes of solar surface activity during the recent solar minimum offers the possibility of a new diagnostic signature of the responsible pressure perturbation in the wave guiding medium, potentially rich of information regarding the structure of the Sun and the cause of the unusually long solar minimum. Magnetic fields, as well as temperature changes, introduce equilibrium pressure deviations that modify the resonant frequencies of p-mode oscillations. Assuming the perturbation to be caused by a horizontal layer of magnetic field located in a plane-stratified model of the Sun, we compile analytical frequency shifts and process them to allow direct comparison with observations. The effect of magnetism itself on the central p-mode frequencies can be neglected in comparison with the thermal effect of a perturbative layer buried in the solar interior. A parametric study shows that a layer as thin as 2100 km at subsurface depths is able to reproduce reported mean anomalous frequency shifts (not correlated to the surface activity), while a layer of size around 4200 km increasing by a small amount at depths near 0.08R⊙ can explain individual low-degree shifts. It is also possible to obtain the mean shifts via the upward motion through depths near 0.03R⊙ of a rising perturbative layer of thickness around 7000 km. Hence the anomalous frequency shifts are best explained by thermal effects in the upper regions of the convection zone. The effects of latitudinal distribution are not treated here.

Authors: C. Foullon and V.M. Nakariakov
Projects: None

Publication Status: ApJ Letter (in press)
Last Modified: 2010-03-16 08:28
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Heliospheric Current Sheet Distortions from Adjacent Outflowing Transients: Multi-spacecraft Observations  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2009-11-02 03:09

The heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is a permanent solar wind feature, with well predicted Earth passages, but it can be structured and its main orientation can be highly distorted. We report new observations from 2 spacecraft in the solar wind (supported by observations from 3 spacecraft in the nightside magnetosheath), showing an evolution across the Sun-Earth line of large field reversals adjacent to the HCS. Contrary to a previously reported multi-spacecraft event, this case shows that the field inversion structure cannot be assumed to be well preserved and close to planar on the scale of the magnetospheric cross-section. However, both cases indicate the presence of field reversals in an away sector that is connected to the southern solar magnetic hemisphere but lies unexpectedly above a toward sector. Following the interpretation of the reversals as transient outflowing loops, associated initial flow deviations can be envisaged to account for the HCS deformations.

Authors: C. Foullon, B. Lavraud, C. J. Owen, A. N. Fazakerley and R.M. Skoug
Projects: None

Publication Status: AIP Proc. 12th Solar Wind Conference, St. Malo, France, June 2009 (Refereed) accepted
Last Modified: 2009-11-02 07:54
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The Apparent Layered Structure of the Heliospheric Current Sheet: Multi-Spacecraft Observations  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2009-08-29 07:54

Multiple current sheet crossings are ubiquitous features of the solar wind associated with high-beta plasma sheets, notably during the passage of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). As the HCS is being convected past near Earth, we attempt to resolve spatial scales and temporal variations of the apparent layered structure of the HCS, including adjacent large scale field reversals. We use several spacecraft for good spatial and cross-scale coverage, spanning 550 RE across and 900 RE along the Sun-Earth line: STEREO, ACE and Cluster. The multi-spacecraft magnetic and plasma observations within the leading edge of the sector boundary are consistent with (i) a broad multi-layered structure; (ii) occasional non-planar structures and Alfvénic fluctuations; (iii) various stages of transient outflowing loops formed by interchange reconnection. By comparison of the observations at each spacecraft, we obtain a synthesis of the evolution between the patterns of loops, and hence of the transient outflow evolution along the sector boundary. In particular, we present circumstantial evidence that a heat flux dropout, traditionally signalling disconnection, can arise from interchange reconnection and scattering. Moreover, the inter-spacecraft comparison eliminates ambiguities between interpretations of electron counterstreaming. Overall, the sector boundary layer remains, locally, a steady structure as it is convected in the solar wind across a radial heliospheric distance of 560-580 RE. However, non-planar structures on the Cluster spatial scale, as well as the variations in angular changes and transition durations on the broader scale, indicate that we are not following the evolution of single loops but more likely a bunch of loops with variable properties.

Authors: Foullon, C., Lavraud, B., Wardle, N.C., Owen, C.J., Kucharek, H., Fazakerley, A.N., Larson, D.E., Lucek, E., Luhmann, J.G., Opitz, A., Sauvaud, J.-A., Skoug, R.M.
Projects: STEREO

Publication Status: Solar Physics (accepted)
Last Modified: 2009-08-31 08:22
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The Apparent Layered Structure of the Heliospheric Current Sheet: Multi-Spacecraft Observations  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2009-08-29 07:54

Multiple current sheet crossings are ubiquitous features of the solar wind associated with high-beta plasma sheets, notably during the passage of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). As the HCS is being convected past near Earth, we attempt to resolve spatial scales and temporal variations of the apparent layered structure of the HCS, including adjacent large scale field reversals. We use several spacecraft for good spatial and cross-scale coverage, spanning 550 RE across and 900 RE along the Sun-Earth line: STEREO, ACE and Cluster. The multi-spacecraft magnetic and plasma observations within the leading edge of the sector boundary are consistent with (i) a broad multi-layered structure; (ii) occasional non-planar structures and Alfvénic fluctuations; (iii) various stages of transient outflowing loops formed by interchange reconnection. By comparison of the observations at each spacecraft, we obtain a synthesis of the evolution between the patterns of loops, and hence of the transient outflow evolution along the sector boundary. In particular, we present circumstantial evidence that a heat flux dropout, traditionally signalling disconnection, can arise from interchange reconnection and scattering. Moreover, the inter-spacecraft comparison eliminates ambiguities between interpretations of electron counterstreaming. Overall, the sector boundary layer remains, locally, a steady structure as it is convected in the solar wind across a radial heliospheric distance of 560-580 RE. However, non-planar structures on the Cluster spatial scale, as well as the variations in angular changes and transition durations on the broader scale, indicate that we are not following the evolution of single loops but more likely a bunch of loops with variable properties.

Authors: Foullon, C., Lavraud, B., Wardle, N.C., Owen, C.J., Kucharek, H., Fazakerley, A.N., Larson, D.E., Lucek, E., Luhmann, J.G., Opitz, A., Sauvaud, J.-A., Skoug, R.M.
Projects: STEREO

Publication Status: Solar Physics (online first), DOI:10.1007/s11207-009-9452-4
Last Modified: 2009-09-28 09:47
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Ultra-long-period Oscillations in EUV Filaments near to Eruption: Two-wavelength Correlation and Seismology  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2009-06-05 08:00

We investigate whether or not ultra-long-period oscillations in EUV filaments can be related to their eruption. We report new observations of long-period (~ 10-30 h) oscillatory motions in an apparently quiescent filament as it crosses the solar disk, in a 12-minute-cadence SoHO/EIT 195? uninterrupted dataset. This dataset is chosen to explore characteristics of the filament oscillations depending on its eruptive behaviour, which is observed while the filament is still on the disk. The periods are found to increase in a near-stable regime prior to eruption. For the two sequences reported so far, we compare and link the EUV filament oscillations with pulsations in full-disk solar EUV irradiance from SoHO/CELIAS/SEM 304? flux measurements. In intervals with stationary periods, we find that the 304? pulsations and the 195? filament oscillations have similar periodicities, but are phase-shifted by about a quarter of period. The two-wavelength correlation serves to show that, when the filament is the dominant dynamical feature but can no longer be tracked on the disk, the full-disk irradiance may provide a mean to identify the period increase prior to the filament eruption. We use the periods thus obtained to estimate the height increase of filaments' suspending coronal magnetic field lines, based on a magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) wave interpretation of the oscillations. The results are consistent with changes in prominence heights detected off-limb and thus support the seismological tool employed. Other interpretations connected with thermal over-stability or MHD piston effect are possible. These theoretical predictions however do not explain the quarter-period shift between the two EUV-wavelength signals. In any case, the detected variations may provide a powerful diagnostic tool for the forecasting of prominence eruptions.

Authors: C. Foullon , E. Verwichte and V.M. Nakariakov
Projects: SoHO-EIT

Publication Status: ApJ, accepted
Last Modified: 2009-06-05 08:01
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Multi-Spacecraft Study of the 21 January 2005 ICME: Evidence of Current Sheet Substructure Near the Periphery of a Strongly Expanding, Fast Magnetic Cloud  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2007-03-12 19:21

We examine the near-Earth Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) apparently related to the intense Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) event of 20 January 2005. Our purpose is to contribute to the understanding of the macroscopic structure, evolution and dynamics of the solar corona and heliosphere. Using Cluster, ACE and Wind data in the solar wind, and Geotail data in the magnetosheath, we perform a multi-spacecraft analysis of the ICME-driven shock, post-shock magnetic discontinuities and ejecta. Traversals by the well-separated near-Earth spacecraft provide a coherent picture of the ICME geometry. Following the shock, the ICME sequence starts with a hot pileup, i.e., a sheath, followed by a fast ejecta characterised by a non-compressive density enhancement (NCDE), which is caused essentially by an enrichment in helium. The plasma and magnetic observations of the ejecta are consistent with the outskirts of a structure in strong expansion, consisting of nested magnetic loops still connected to the Sun. Within the leading edge of the ejecta, we establish the presence of a tilted current sheet substructure. An analysis of the observations suggests that the tilted current sheet is draped within the overlying cloud canopy, ahead of a magnetic cloud-like structure. The flux rope interpretation of this structure near L1, confirmed by observations of the corresponding magnetic cloud, provided by Ulysses at 5.3 AU and away from the Sun-Earth line, indicate that the bulk of the cloud is in the north-west sector as seen from the Earth, with its axis nearly perpendicular to the ecliptic. This is consistent with the primary direction of travel of the fast halo-CME observed at the Sun. Moreover, the NCDE and helium enrichment are consistent with the position near the streamer belt of the flaring active region NOAA 10720 associated with the CME. However, differences between interplanetary and solar observations indicate a large rotation of the erupting filament and overlying arcade, which can be attributed to the flux rope being subject to the helical kink instability.

Authors: Foullon, C., Owen, C.J., Dasso, S., Green, L.M., Dandouras, I., Elliott, H.A., Fazakerley, A.N., Bogdanova, Y.V. and Crooker, N.U.
Projects: SoHO-EIT,SoHO-MDI,SoHO-LASCO,TRACE

Publication Status: Solar Physics (in press DOI: 10.1007/s11207-007-0330-7)
Last Modified: 2007-06-11 12:42
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Automated Detection of EUV Prominences  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2005-12-05 10:30

We present methods to detect automatically off-limb prominences in the EUV, using synoptic images taken by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) on board SoHO. The 304A line is essential for the detection of EUV prominences, but the optimal detection is achieved through a combined image processing of the four synoptic EIT images. In addition, the difference between consecutive 304A images serves to identify erupted prominences. Representation maps of the quiescent EUV prominences for a given Carrington rotation are generated and used for further analysis of the detected structures. Longitudinal profiles of long-lived prominences are investigated for three examples at different latitudes, in conjunction with on-disk intensity profiles in the EUV. The observations coincide with theoretically predicted apparent longitudinal profiles, which can be distinguished from the profile of a prominence rising before eruption. The developed algorithms may be relevant to study the 3D geometry of features seen in the EUV and may facilitate the analysis of data from the future STEREO mission.

Authors: Foullon C. and Verwichte E.
Projects: Soho-EIT

Publication Status: Solar Physics 234, Issue 1, 135-150
Last Modified: 2006-02-27 10:55
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X-ray quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares as magnetohydrodynamic oscillations  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2005-08-12 03:27

We report the first observation at high spatial resolution of long-period quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) of X-ray radiation during solar flares, made possible with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), supported by complementary data at other wavelengths from space-based and ground-based telescopes. Evidence for the presence of a transequatorial loop possibly responsible for the detected periodicity connected with its kink mode is found. Our findings suggest that QPP can be interpreted as a periodic pumping of electrons in a compact flaring loop, modulated by oscillations in a magnetically linked and larger loop acting as a long-period magnetohydrodynamic resonator.

Authors: Foullon C., Verwichte E., Nakariakov V.M. and Fletcher L.
Projects: RHESSI

Publication Status: A&A 440, L59-L62
Last Modified: 2005-09-01 05:17
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Toward Interplanetary Space Weather: Strategies for Manned Missions to Mars  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2005-07-26 05:51

By 2025 an international human mission to Mars may be a reality, with the Moon as a likely intermediate step. The desire to explore and send humans into interplanetary space is currently confronted with many uncertainties for assuring the crew's safety from radiation. One option to reduce these uncertainties and mitigate the potential radiation-induced health risks is to consider operational approaches. Future interplanetary manned missions will require global monitoring and warning systems capable of providing space weather forecasts and alerts and assuring adequate warning and protection from solar proton events (SPEs) during extravehicular activities. Aurora is the European Programme for the Exploration of the Solar System and will involve a program of robotic and manned missions. Within Aurora, the European Space Agency recently initiated a study entitled ''Radiation Exposure and Mission Strategies for Interplanetary Manned Missions.'' Here we present part of the results from the work, a study on ''Radiation Hazard and Space Weather Warning System.'' We review the strategies to adopt for the future development of interplanetary space weather.

Authors: Foullon, C., Crosby, N.B. and Heynderickx, D.
Projects: None

Publication Status: Space Weather 3, S07004
Last Modified: 2005-07-26 05:51
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The influence of internal magnetic layers on the frequencies of solar p-modes  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2005-05-14 10:42

Buried magnetic fields at the base of the convection zone and in the anchoring zones of sunspots are presumed to vary over the solar activity cycle. Their effect on p-mode oscillations is explored in detail, through theoretical modelling. The helioseismic signature from a tachocline or shallow horizontal layer of magnetic field, buried in a plane-stratified model of the Sun, is explored by examining frequency shifts of various order and degree. p-modes propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field lines are found to yield the largest frequency shifts. However, frequency shifts due to buried magnetic fields are considerably smaller than observationally determined shifts over the solar cycle. Nonetheless, an analytical approach to the problem provides useful insight for solar and stellar applications.

Authors: Foullon, C. and Roberts, B.
Projects:

Publication Status: A&A 439, 713-726
Last Modified: 2005-08-01 09:39
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Detection of ultra-long-period oscillations in an EUV filament  

Claire Foullon   Submitted: 2004-09-29 04:26

We report the first detection of long-period (8-27 hours) oscillatory intensity variations in a coronal filament. The filament is observed continuously as it crosses the solar disk in a 12-minute-cadence SoHO/EIT 195 A, uninterrupted data set. Cyclic intensity variations are found to be correlated along the filament, while the most pronounced oscillations are detected at its southern end for nearly 6 days. The dominant period of these oscillations is 12.1 hours and the amplitude of the intensity variations reaches approximately 10% of the background intensity. The ultra-long-period oscillations may be interpreted in terms of slow string MHD modes or may be connected with thermal over-stability associated with peculiarities of the cooling/heating function and with the effect of neutrals. These theoretical predictions however do not explain the spatial structure of the oscillations along the filament.

Authors: Foullon C., Verwichte E. and Nakariakov V.M.
Projects: Soho-EIT

Publication Status: A&A 427, L5-L8
Last Modified: 2004-10-26 02:47
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Abstracts by Author
First magnetic seismology of the CME reconnection outflow layer in the low corona with 2.5-D MHD simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability
Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability of the CME Reconnection Outflow Layer in the Low Corona
Plasmoid Releases in the Heliospheric Current Sheet and Associated Coronal Hole Boundary Layer Evolution
Magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability at the Sun
From large-scale loops to the sites of dense flaring loops: preferential conditions for long-period pulsations in solar flares
Independent Signals from the Influence of Internal Magnetic Layers on the Frequencies of Solar P-modes
Heliospheric Current Sheet Distortions from Adjacent Outflowing Transients: Multi-spacecraft Observations
The Apparent Layered Structure of the Heliospheric Current Sheet: Multi-Spacecraft Observations
The Apparent Layered Structure of the Heliospheric Current Sheet: Multi-Spacecraft Observations
Ultra-long-period Oscillations in EUV Filaments near to Eruption: Two-wavelength Correlation and Seismology
Multi-Spacecraft Study of the 21 January 2005 ICME: Evidence of Current Sheet Substructure Near the Periphery of a Strongly Expanding, Fast Magnetic Cloud
Automated Detection of EUV Prominences
X-ray quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares as magnetohydrodynamic oscillations
Toward Interplanetary Space Weather: Strategies for Manned Missions to Mars
The influence of internal magnetic layers on the frequencies of solar p-modes
Detection of ultra-long-period oscillations in an EUV filament

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