We used the flux calibrated images through the Broad Band Filter Imager and Stokes Polarimeter data obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Hinode spacecraft to study the properties of bright points in and around the sunspots. The well isolated bright points were selected and classified as umbral dot, peripheral umbral dot, penumbral grains and G-band bright point depending on their location. Most of the bright points are smaller than about 150 km. The larger points are mostly associated with the penumbral features. The bright points are not uniformly distributed over the umbra but preferentially located around the penumbral boundary and in the fast decaying parts of umbra. The color temperature of the bright points, derived using the continuum irradiance, are in the range of 4600 K to 6600 K with cooler ones located in the umbra. The temperature increases as a function of distance from the center to outside. The G-band, CN-band and CaII H flux of the bright points as a function of their blue band brightness increase continuously in a nonlinear fashion unlike their red and green counterpart. This is consistent with a model in which the localized heating of the flux tube deplete the molecular concentration resulting the reduced opacity which leads to the exposition of deeper and hotter layers. The scatter in CaII H irradiance is higher compared to the G-band and CN-band irradiance. The light curve of the bright points show that the enhanced brightness at these locations last for about 15 to 60 minutes with the least contrast for the points out side the spot. The umbral dots near the penumbral boundary are associated with elongated filamentary structures.
The spectropolarimeter observations show that the G-band brightness closely follows their magnetic filling factor. As the filling factor decreases the brightness increases. Generally, the umbral dots have higher magnetic field and larger Doppler velocity compared to their counterpart outside the spot. The ``flux tubes'' in the umbra are less inclined compared to the ones associated with the penumbra.
We discuss these observation in the framework of sunspot models that include the creation of umbral dots by the plasma trapped in between the magnetic flux tubes. The upward intruding plasma through the nonmagnetic columns between the fluxtubes of sunspot produce the bright points and heat the matter inside of adjacent tubes. The heated plasma flows in the direction of reduced gas pressure. Similar localized heating of penumbra leads to the origin of penumbral grains. The G-band bright points are mostly the vertical flux tubes embedded in photospheric material. The varying degree of G-dand, CN-band and CaII H brightness of these points are due to the combined effect of different degree of heating and exposure of hot flux tube walls for viewing deeper photospheric layers.
Authors: Debi Prasad Choudhary and Toshifumi Shimizu
Publication Status: Submitted to ApJ
Last Modified: 2010-01-14 10:14
Intensity and Magnetic Field Distribution of Sunspots
We study the relationship between the brightness I and magnetic field B distributions of sunspots using 272 samples observed at the San Fernando Observatory and the National Solar Observatory, Kitt Peak whose characteristics varied widely. We find that the I-B relationship has a quadratic form for the spots with magnetic field less than about 2000 G. The slope of the linear part of the I-B curve varies by about a factor of three for different types of spots. In general the slope increases as the spot approaches disk center. The I-B slope does not have a clear dependency on the spot size but the lower limit appears to increase as a function of the ratio of umbra and penumbra area. The I-B slope changes as a function of age of the sunspots. We discuss various sunspot models using these results.
Authors: T. Leonard and D. P. Choudhary
Publication Status: Accepted for publication in Solar Physics
Last Modified: 2008-09-23 20:52