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Oscillation of current sheets in the wake of a flux rope eruption observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2016-09-30 03:09

An erupting flux rope (FR) draws its overlying coronal loops upward, causing a coronal mass ejection. The legs of the overlying loops with opposite polarities are driven together. Current sheets (CSs) form, and magnetic reconnection, producing underneath flare arcades, occurs in the CSs. Employing Solar Dynamic Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images, we study a FR eruption on 2015 April 23, and for the first time report the oscillation of CSs underneath the erupting FR. The FR is observed in all AIA extreme-ultraviolet passbands, indicating that it has both hot and warm components. Several bright CSs, connecting the erupting FR and the underneath flare arcades, are observed only in hotter AIA channels, e.g., 131 and 94 Å. Using the differential emission measure (EM) analysis, we find that both the temperature and the EM of CSs temporally increase rapidly, reach the peaks, and then decrease slowly. A significant delay between the increases of the temperature and the EM is detected. The temperature, EM, and density spatially decrease along the CSs with increasing heights. For a well-developed CS, the temperature (EM) decreases from 9.6 MK (8 x 1028 cm-5) to 6.2 MK (5 x 1027 cm-5) in 52 Mm. Along the CSs, dark supra-arcade downflows (SADs) are observed, and one of them separates a CS into two. While flowing sunward, the speeds of the SADs decrease. The CSs oscillate with a period of 11 minutes, an amplitude of 1.5 Mm, and a phase speed of 200 ± 30 km s-1. One of the oscillations lasts for more than 2 hr. These oscillations represent fast-propagating magnetoacoustic kink waves.

Authors: Li, L. P., Zhang, J., Su, J. T., Liu, Y.
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: 2016, ApJ, 829, L33
Last Modified: 2016-10-03 12:31
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Magnetic reconnection between a solar filament and nearby coronal loops  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2016-05-12 08:55

Magnetic reconnection between a solar filament and nearby coronal loops | Magnetic reconnection, the rearrangement of magnetic field topology, is a fundamental physical process in magnetized plasma systems all over the universe. Its process is difficult to be directly observed. Coronal structures, such as coronal loops and filament spines, often sketch the magnetic field geometry and its changes in the solar corona. Here we show a highly suggestive observation of magnetic reconnection between an erupting solar filament and its nearby coronal loops, resulting in changes in connection of the filament. X-type structures form when the erupting filament encounters the loops. The filament becomes straight, and bright current sheets form at the interfaces with the loops. Many plasmoids appear in these current sheets and propagate bi-directionally. The filament disconnects from the current sheets, which gradually disperse and disappear, reconnects to the loops, and becomes redirected to the loop footpoints. This evolution of the filament and the loops suggests successive magnetic reconnection predicted by theories but rarely detected with such clarity in observations. Our results on the formation, evolution, and disappearance of current sheets, confirm three-dimensional magnetic reconnection theory and have implications for the evolution of dissipation regions and the release of magnetic energy for reconnection in many magnetized plasma systems.

Authors: Leping Li, Jun Zhang, Hardi Peter, Eric Priest, Huadong Chen, Lijia Guo, Feng Chen, Duncan Mackay
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI,STEREO

Publication Status: Nature Physics, 2016, DOI:10.1038/NPHYS3768
Last Modified: 2016-05-13 06:55
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Heating and cooling of coronal loops observed by SDO  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2015-09-15 05:42

Context: One of the most prominent processes suggested to heat the corona to well above 106 K builds on nanoflares, short bursts of energy dissipation. Aims: We compare observations to model predictions to test the validity of the nanoflare process. Methods: Using extreme UV data from AIA/SDO and HMI/SDO line-of-sight magnetograms we study the spatial and temporal evolution of a set of loops in active region AR 11850. Results: We find a transient brightening of loops in emission from Fe xviii forming at about 7.2 MK while at the same time these loops dim in emission from lower temperatures. This points to a fast heating of the loop that goes along with evaporation of material that we observe as apparent upward motions in the image sequence. After this initial phases lasting for some 10 min, the loops brighten in a sequence of AIA channels showing cooler and cooler plasma, indicating the cooling of the loops over a time scale of about one hour. A comparison to the predictions from a 1D loop model shows that this observation supports the nanoflare process in (almost) all aspects. In addition, our observations show that the loops get broader while getting brighter, which cannot be understood in a 1D model.

Authors: Li, L. P., Peter, H., Chen, F., and Zhang, J.
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: Accepted by A&A
Last Modified: 2015-09-16 13:50
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Conversion from mutual helicity to self-helicity observed with IRIS  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2014-09-17 03:30

Context. In the upper atmosphere of the Sun observations show convincing evidence for crossing and twisted structures, which are interpreted as mutual helicity and self-helicity. Aims. We use observations with the new Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to show the conversion of mutual helicity into self-helicity in coronal structures on the Sun. Methods. Using far UV spectra and slit-jaw images from IRIS and coronal images and magnetograms from SDO, we investigated the evolution of two crossing loops in an active region, in particular, the properties of the Si IV line profile in cool loops. Results. In the early stage two cool loops cross each other and accordingly have mutual helicity. The Doppler shifts in the loops indicate that they wind around each other. As a consequence, near the crossing point of the loops (interchange) reconnection sets in, which heats the plasma. This is consistent with the observed increase of the line width and of the appearance of the loops at higher temperatures. After this interaction, the two new loops run in parallel, and in one of them shows a clear spectral tilt of the Si IV line profile. This is indicative of a helical (twisting) motion, which is the same as to say that the loop has self-helicity. Conclusions. The high spatial and spectral resolution of IRIS allowed us to see the conversion of mutual helicity to self-helicity in the (interchange) reconnection of two loops. This is observational evidence for earlier theoretical speculations.

Authors: L. Li, H. Peter, F. Chen, J. Zhang
Projects: IRIS,SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: A&A, in press
Last Modified: 2014-09-17 11:22
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Eruptions of two flux ropes observed by SDO and STEREO  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2013-03-28 02:09

Aims. We report for the first time the hot and cool components of two flux ropes simultaneously observed by SDO and STEREO, and the relationship between the flux rope eruptions and the coronal mass ejection (CME). Methods. Employing SDO and STEREO A and B observations, we investigated the eruptive event of two flux ropes and their associated activities in active region (AR) 11402 on January 23, 2012. Results. In SDO/AIA 94 Å (6.4 MK) and 131 Å (10 MK) images, a twisted flux rope appeared from 00:44 UT, which was located in AR 11402. Another longer saddle-shaped flux rope, with twisted fine structures, appeared 25 min later. This was located across the two ARs 11401 and 11402. These two flux ropes initially rose rapidly, then slowly, and finally were again accelerated fast. The two flux ropes are also identified in the STEREO A and B 195 Å (1.4 MK), 304 Å (0.06-0.08 MK), 284 ? (1.8 MK), and 171 Å (1.0 MK) observations. We suggest that the flux ropes may have both hot and cool components. Investigating the flux rope eruptions with their associated CME, we find that the erupting flux ropes are co-spatial with the CME bright core and the expanding overlying flux loops with the CME bright front.

Authors: Leping Li, and Jun Zhang
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI,STEREO

Publication Status: accepted by A&A Letter
Last Modified: 2013-03-28 12:12
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The evolution of barbs on a polar crown filament observed by SDO  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2012-05-07 01:21

From August 16 to 21, 2010, a northern (~ N60) polar crown filament was observed by Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Employing the six day SDO/AIA data, we identify 69 barbs, and select 58 of them, which appeared away from the western solar limb (≤ W60), as our sample. We systematically investigate the evolution of filament barbs. Three different types of apparent formation of barbs are detected, including (1) the convergence of surrounding moving plasma condensations, comprised 55.2% of our sample, (2) the flows of plasma condensations from the filament, composed 37.9%, and (3) the plasma injections from the neighboring brightening regions, comprised 6.9%. We also find three different ways of barb disappearance, involving: (i) the bi-lateral movements (44.8%), and (ii) the outflowing (27.6%), of barb plasma results in the barb disappearance, as well as (iii) the barb disappearance is associated with the neighboring brightening (27.6%). The evolutions of the magnetic fields, e.g. magnetic emergences, and magnetic cancelations and disappearances, may cause the formation and disappearance of the barb magnetic structures. Barbs exchange plasma condensations with the surrounding atmosphere, filament, and nearby brightening regions, leading to the formation and disappearance of barb material. Furthermore, we find that all the barbs underwent oscillations. The average oscillating period, amplitude and velocity are 30 min, 2.4 Mm and 5.7 km s-1, respectively. Besides the oscillations, 21 (36%) barbs manifested sideward motions having an average speed of 0.45 km s-1. Small-scale wave-like propagating disturbances caused by small-scale brightening are detected, and the barb oscillations associated with the disturbances are also found. We propose that the kinematics of barbs may be caused by the evolution of the neighboring photospheric magnetic fields.

Authors: Leping Li and Jun Zhang
Projects: SDO-AIA

Publication Status: Accepted by Sol. Phys., 39 pages, 16 figures
Last Modified: 2012-05-07 13:36
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The study of the first productive active region in solar cycle 24  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2011-12-21 03:17

Context. The Sun is very quiet with less sunspots and activity since the beginning of solar cycle 24. However, the active region (AR) 11 045 emerged on February 5, 2010, is associated with 43 (8 M- and 35 C-class) flares, 53 coronal mass ejections (CMEs), 29 filament eruptions, 19 extreme ultraviolet (EUV) waves and abundant jets, indicating that this AR is the first productive one of solar cycle 24.

Aims. We study the AR evolution and its associated activities, and also their relationships, to understand this productive AR.

Methods. We used SOHO/MDI magnetograms to study the magnetic fields, STEREO/SECCHI images to explore the activities, and GOES measurements to investigate the soft X-ray flux of the AR.

Results. During the AR evolution, six pairs of main magnetic fields emerged, and 93.1% flares and 82.75% filament eruption occurred in the emergence and stable phases of the magnetic flux. However, 43.4% CMEs occurred in the decaying phase, even though there were less flares. An example is given to show that an event is related to a flare, a filament eruption, a CME and an EUV wave from inner corona to outer corona in space, and the filament eruption and EUV wave occur near the peak time of the flare. Among the 29 filament eruptions, 79.3% are associated with CMEs, as well as 58.6%, associated with flares, and 34.5%, associated with EUV waves. During the 12-day active phase, 575 jets are detected with a daily occurrence rate of 49.3. This is the first time that so many jets have been identified in one AR, implying at least 575 lower magnetic reconnection processes during the AR evolution. We statistically studied these jets along with the AR evolution, and noticed that the jets mostly occurred surrounding the emerging flux. We also investigated the spatio-temporal relationships between the jets and the flares, and find that the jets are usually rooted around the flare cores, and the soft X-ray flux is inverse correlated with the number of the jets, especially during the beginning 9 days since the AR emergence. In comparison with AR 11045, we studied the other newly emerging AR 11045, and obtained similar results. The relationships between the jets and the flares may well represent a scenario of two-step magnetic reconnection. Using schematic diagrams, we explain the remarkable magnetic field emergence, cancelation and shear motion of AR 11045, and its associated activities.


Authors: L. P. Li, J. Zhang, T. Li, S. H. Yang, and Y. Z. Zhang
Projects: STEREO

Publication Status: accepted by A&A
Last Modified: 2011-12-28 12:08
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Sideways displacement of penumbral fibrils by the solar flare on 2006 December 13  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2010-06-30 20:05

Flares are known to restructure the magnetic field in the corona and to accelerate the gas between the field lines, but their effect on the photosphere is less well studied. New data of the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard Hinode provide unprecedented opportunity to uncover the photospheric effect of a solar flare, which associates with an active region NOAA AR 10930 on 2006 December 13. We find a clear lateral displacement of sunspot penumbral regions scanned by two flare ribbons. In the impulsive phase of the flare, the flare ribbons scan the sunspot at a speed of around 18 km s-1, derived from Ca II and G-band images. We find instantaneous horizontal shear of penumbral fibrils, with initial velocities of about 1.6 km s-1, produced when a flare ribbon passes over them. This velocity decreases rapidly at first, then gradually decays, so that about one hour later, the fibrils return to a new equilibrium. During the one hour interval, the total displacement of these fibrils is around 2.0 Mm, with an average shear velocity of 0.55 km s-1. This lateral motion of the penumbral fibrils indicates that the magnetic footpoints of these field lines being rearranged in the corona also move.

Authors: Jun Zhang, Leping Li, S. K. Solanki
Projects: Hinode/SOT

Publication Status: Accepted by ApJL
Last Modified: 2010-07-02 14:55
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Statistics of Flares Sweeping across Sunspots  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2009-09-29 20:00

Flare ribbons are always dynamic, and sometimes sweep across sunspots. Examining 588 (513 M-class and 75 X-class) flare events observed by Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) satellite and Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) from 1998 May to 2009 May, we choose the event displaying that one of the flare ribbons completely sweeps across the umbra of a main sunspot of the corresponding active region, and finally obtain 20 (7 X-class and 13 M-class) events as our sample. In each event, we define the main sunspot completely swept across by the flare ribbon as A-sunspot, and its nearby opposite polarity sunspots, B-sunspot. Observations show that the A-sunspot is a following polarity sunspot in 18 events, and displays flux emergence in 13 cases. All the B-sunspots are relatively simple, exhibiting either one main sunspot or one main sunspot and several small neighboring sunspots (pores). In two days prior to the flare occurrence, the A-sunspot rotates in all the cases, while the B-sunspot, in 19 events. The total rotating angle of the A-sunspot and B-sunspot is 193 degrees on average, and the rotating directions, are the same in 12 events. In all cases, the A-sunspot and B-sunspot manifest shear motions with an average shearing angle of 28.5 degrees, and in 14 cases, the shearing direction is opposite to the rotating direction of the A-sunspot. We suggest that the emergence, the rotation and the shear motions of the A-sunspot and B-sunspot result in the phenomenon that flare ribbons sweep across sunspots completely.

Authors: Leping Li and Jun Zhang
Projects: None

Publication Status: Accepted by ApJL
Last Modified: 2009-09-30 08:09
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Observations of The Magnetic Reconnection Signature of An M2 Flare on 2000 March 23  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2009-07-26 22:57

Multi-wavelength observations of an M 2.0 flare event on 2000 March 23 in NOAA active region 8910 provide us a good chance to study the detailed structure and dynamics of the magnetic reconnection region. In the process of the flare, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) loops displayed two times of sideward motions upon a loop-top hard X-ray source with average velocities of 75 and 25.6 km s-1, respectively. Meanwhile part of the loops disappeared and new post-flare loops formed. We consider these two motions to be the observational evidence of reconnection inflow, and find an X-shaped structure upon the post-flare loops during the period of the second motion. Two separations of the flare ribbons are associated with these two sideward motions, with average velocities of 3.3 and 1.3 km s-1, separately. The sideward motions of the EUV loops and the separations of the flare ribbons are temporally consistent with two peaks of the X-ray flux. This indicates that there are two times of magnetic reconnection in the process of the flare. Using the observation of photospheric magnetic field, the velocities of the sideward motions and the separations, we deduce the corresponding coronal magnetic field strength to be about 13.2-15.2 G, and estimate the reconnection rates to be 0.05 and 0.02 for these two magnetic reconnection processes, respectively. Besides the sideward motions of EUV loops and the separations of flare ribbons, we also observe motions of bright points upward and downward along the EUV loops with velocities ranging from 45.4 to 556.7 km s-1, which are thought to be the plasmoids accelerated in the current sheet and ejected upward and downward when magnetic reconnection occurs and energy releases. A cloud of bright material flowing outward from the loop-top hard X-ray source with an average velocity of 51 km s-1 in the process of the flare may be accelerated by the tension force of the newly reconnected magnetic field lines. All the observations can be explained by schematic diagrams of magnetic reconnection.

Authors: Leping Li and Jun Zhang
Projects: TRACE

Publication Status: Accepted by ApJ
Last Modified: 2009-07-27 10:47
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Subject will be restored when possible  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2008-09-16 21:31


Authors: Leping Li and Jun Zhang
Projects:

Publication Status: Submitted
Last Modified: 0000-00-00 00:00
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On the Brightening Propagation of Post-Flare Loops Observed by TRACE  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2008-09-16 21:31

Examining flare data observed by TRACE satellite from May 1998 to December 2006, we choose 190 (151 M-class and 39 X-class) flare events which display post-flare loops (PFLs), observed by 171 Å and 195 Å wavelengths. 124 of the 190 events exhibit flare ribbons (FRs), observed by 1600 Å images. We investigate the propagation of the brightening of these PFLs along the neutral lines and the separation of the FRs perpendicular to the neutral lines. Observations indicate that the footpoints of the initial brightening PFLs are always associated with the change of the photospheric magnetic fields. In most of the cases, the length of the FRs ranges from 20 Mm to 170 Mm. The propagating duration of the brightening is from 10 minutes to 60 minutes, and from 10 minutes to 70 minutes for the separating duration of the FRs. The velocities of the propagation and the separation range from 3 km s-1 to 39 km s-1 and 3 km s-1 to 15 km s-1, respectively. Both of the propagating velocities and the separating velocities are associated with the flare strength and the length of the FRs. It appears that the propagation and the separation are dynamically coupled, that is the greater the propagating velocity is, the faster the separation is. Furthermore, a greater propagating velocity corresponds to a greater deceleration (or acceleration). These PFLs display three types of propagating patterns. Type I propagation, which possesses about half of all the events, is that the brightening begins at the middle part of a set of PFLs, and propagates bi-directionally towards its both ends. Type II, possessing 30%, is that the brightening firstly appears at one end of a set of PFLs, then propagates to the other end. The remnant belongs to Type III propagation which displays that the initial brightening takes place at two (or more than two) positions on two (or more than two) sets of PFLs, and each brightening propagates bi-directionally along the neutral line. These three types of propagating patterns can be explained by a three-dimensional magnetic reconnection model.

Authors: Leping Li and Jun Zhang
Projects: TRACE

Publication Status: Submitted
Last Modified: 2008-09-16 21:39
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Subject will be restored when possible  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2008-09-04 22:42

Examining flare data observed by TRACE satellite from May 1998 to December 2006, we choose 190 (151 M-class and 39 X-class) flare events which display post-flare loops (PFLs), observed by 171 Å and 195 Å wavelengths. 124 of the 190 events exhibit flare ribbons (FRs), observed by 1600 AA~images. We investigate the propagation of the brightening of these PFLs along the neutral lines and the separation of the FRs perpendicular to the neutral lines. Observations indicate that the footpoints of the initial brightening PFLs are always associated with the change of the photospheric magnetic fields. In most of the cases, the length of the FRs ranges from 20 Mm to 170 Mm. The propagating duration of the brightening is from 10 minutes to 60 minutes, and from 10 minutes to 70 minutes for the separating duration of the FRs. The velocities of the propagation and the separation range from 3 km s-1 to 39 km s-1 and 3 km s-1 to 15 km s-1, respectively. Both of the propagating velocities and the separating velocities are associated with the flare strength and the length of the FRs. It appears that the propagation and the separation are dynamically coupled, that is the greater the propagating velocity is, the faster the separation is. Furthermore, a greater propagating velocity corresponds to a greater deceleration (or acceleration). These PFLs display three types of propagating patterns. Type I propagation, which possesses about half of all the events, is that the brightening begins at the middle part of a set of PFLs, and propagates bi-directionally towards its both ends. Type II, possessing 30%, is that the brightening firstly appears at one end of a set of PFLs, then propagates to the other end. The remnant belongs to Type III propagation which displays that the initial brightening takes place at two (or more than two) positions on two (or more than two) sets of PFLs, and each brightening propagates bi-directionally along the neutral line. These three types of propagating patterns can be explained by a three-dimensional magnetic reconnection model.

Authors: Leping Li & Jun Zhang
Projects: TRACE

Publication Status: accepted by APJ
Last Modified: 2008-09-05 08:30
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Subject will be restored when possible  

Leping Li   Submitted: 2008-09-04 22:38

Examining flare data observed by TRACE satellite from May 1998 to December 2006, we choose 190 (151 M-class and 39 X-class) flare events which display post-flare loops (PFLs), observed by 171 Å?A and 195 Å?A wavelengths. 124 of the 190 events exhibit flare ribbons (FRs), observed by 1600 Å?A images. We investigate the propagation of the brightening of these PFLs along the neutral lines and the separation of the FRs perpendicular to the neutral lines. Observations indicate that the footpoints of the initial brightening PFLs are always associated with the change of the photospheric magnetic fields. In most of the cases, the length of the FRs ranges from 20 Mm to 170 Mm. The propagating duration of the brightening is from 10 minutes to 60 minutes, and from 10 minutes to 70 minutes for the separating duration of the FRs. The velocities of the propagation and the separation range from 3 km s-1 to 39 km s-1 and 3 km s-1 to 15 km s-1, respectively. Both of the propagating velocities and the separating velocities are associated with the flare strength and the length of the FRs. It appears that the propagation and the separation are dynamically coupled, that is the greater the propagating velocity is, the faster the separation is. Furthermore, a greater propagating velocity corresponds to a greater deceleration (or acceleration). These PFLs display three types of propagating patterns. Type I propagation, which possesses about half of all the events, is that the brightening begins at the middle part of a set of PFLs, and propagates bi-directionally towards its both ends. Type II, possessing 30%, is that the brightening firstly appears at one end of a set of PFLs, then propagates to the other end. The remnant belongs to Type III propagation which displays that the initial brightening takes place at two (or more than two) positions on two (or more than two) sets of PFLs, and each brightening propagates bi-directionally along the neutral line. These three types of propagating patterns can be explained by a three-dimensional magnetic reconnection model.

Authors: Leping Li & Jun Zhang
Projects: TRACE

Publication Status: accepted by APJ
Last Modified: 2008-09-04 22:38
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Abstracts by Author
Oscillation of current sheets in the wake of a flux rope eruption observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory
Magnetic reconnection between a solar filament and nearby coronal loops
Heating and cooling of coronal loops observed by SDO
Conversion from mutual helicity to self-helicity observed with IRIS
Eruptions of two flux ropes observed by SDO and STEREO
The evolution of barbs on a polar crown filament observed by SDO
The study of the first productive active region in solar cycle 24
Sideways displacement of penumbral fibrils by the solar flare on 2006 December 13
Statistics of Flares Sweeping across Sunspots
Observations of The Magnetic Reconnection Signature of An M2 Flare on 2000 March 23
Subject will be restored when possible
On the Brightening Propagation of Post-Flare Loops Observed by TRACE
Subject will be restored when possible
Subject will be restored when possible

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