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Chromospheric Evaporation in Solar Flare Loop Strands Observed with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer Aboard Hinode  

Jeffrey Brosius   Submitted: 2012-12-28 09:04

The entire profile of the Fe XXIII line at 263.8 Angstroms, formed at temperature around 14 MK, was blueshifted by an upward velocity -122 ± 33 km s-1 when it was first detected by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) operating in rapid cadence (11.18 s) stare mode during a C1 solar flare. The entire profile became even more blueshifted over the next two exposures, when the upward velocity reached its maximum of -208 ± 14 km s-1 before decreasing to zero over the next 12 exposures. After that, a weak, secondary blueshifted component appeared for 5 exposures, reached a maximum upward velocity of -206 ± 33 km s-1, and disappeared after the maximum line intensity (stationary plus blueshifted) was achieved. Velocities were measured relative to the intense stationary profile observed near the flare's peak and early during its decline. The initial episode during which the entire profile was blueshifted lasted about 156 s, while the following episode during which a secondary blueshifted component was detected lasted about 56 s. The first episode likely corresponds to chromospheric evaporation in a single loop strand, while the second corresponds to evaporation in an additional strand, as described in multi-strand flare loop models proposed by Hori et al. and Warren & Doschek. Line emission from progressively cooler ions (Fe XVII, XVI, and XIV) brightened at successively later times, consistent with cooling of flare-heated plasma.

Authors: Brosius, J. W.
Projects: Hinode/EIS,SDO-AIA,SoHO-CDS

Publication Status: ApJ, 762, 133 (2013)
Last Modified: 2012-12-28 09:17
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Early Chromospheric Response During a Solar Microflare Observed With SOHO's CDS and RHESSI  

Jeffrey Brosius   Submitted: 2010-08-24 12:17

We observed a solar microflare with RHESSI and SOHO's Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on 2009 July 5. With CDS we obtained rapid cadence (7 s) stare spectra within a narrow field of view toward the center of AR 11024. The spectra contain emission lines from ions that cover a wide range of temperature, including He I (<0.025 MK), O V (0.25 MK), Si XII (2 MK), and Fe XIX (8 MK). The start of a precursor burst of He I and O V line emission preceded the steady increase of Fe XIX line emission by about 1 minute and the emergence of 3-12 keV X-ray emission by about 4 minutes. Thus, the onset of the microflare was observed in upper chromospheric (He I) and transition region (O V) line emission before it was detected in high-temperature flare plasma emission. Redshifted O V emission during the precursor suggests explosive chromospheric evaporation, but no corresponding blueshifts were found with either Fe XIX (which was very weak) or Si XII. Similarly, in subsequent microflare brightenings the O V and He I intensities increased (between 49 s and almost 2 minutes) before emissions from the hot flare plasma. Although these time differences likely indicate heating by a nonthermal particle beam, the RHESSI spectra provide no additional evidence for such a beam. In intervals lasting up to about 3 minutes during several bursts, the He I and O V emission line profiles showed secondary, highly blueshifted (~ -200 km s-1) components; during intervals lasting nearly 1 minute the velocities of the primary and secondary components were oppositely directed. Combined with no corresponding blueshifts in either Fe XIX or Si XII, this indicates that explosive chromospheric evaporation occurred predominantly at either comparatively cool temperatures (<2 MK) or within a hot temperature range to which our observations were not sensitive (e.g., between 2 and 8 MK).

Authors: Jeffrey W. Brosius and Gordon D. Holman
Projects: RHESSI, CDS

Publication Status: ApJ 720, 1472
Last Modified: 2010-08-24 12:17
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Conversion From Explosive to Gentle Chromospheric Evaporation During a Solar Flare  

Jeffrey Brosius   Submitted: 2009-08-06 14:31

A GOES M1.5 solar flare was observed in NOAA AR 10652 on 27 July 2004 around 20:00 UT with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) aboard the SOHO spacecraft. Images obtained with SOHO's Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) and with the TRACE satellite show that the CDS slit was positioned within the flare, whose emission extended 1 arcmin along the slit. Rapid cadence (9.8 s) stare spectra obtained with CDS include emission from the upper chromosphere (He I at 584.3 A), transition region (O V at 629.7 A), corona (Si XII at 520.7 A), and hot flare plasma (Fe XIX at 592.2 A), and reveal that (1) the flare brightened in its southern parts before it did so in the north; (2) chromospheric evaporation was ''explosive'' during the first rapid intensity increase observed in Fe XIX, but converted to ''gentle'' during the second; (3) chromospheric evaporation did not occur in the northern portion of the flare observed by CDS: the brightening observed there was due to flare material moving into that location from elsewhere. We speculate that the initial slow, steady increase of Fe XIX intensity that was observed to start several minutes before its rapid increase was due to direct coronal heating. The change from explosive to gentle evaporation was likely due to either an increased absorption of beam energy during the gentle event because the beam passed through an atmosphere modified by the earlier explosive event, or to a weakening of the coronal magnetic field's ability to accelerate nonthermal particle beams (via reconnection) as the flare progressed, or both.

Authors: Jeffrey W. Brosius
Projects: SoHO-EIT,SoHO-MDI,SoHO-CDS,TRACE

Publication Status: ApJ, 701, 1209 (2009 August 20)
Last Modified: 2009-08-07 09:47
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Observations of the Thermal and Dynamic Evolution of a Solar Microflare  

Jeffrey Brosius   Submitted: 2009-02-24 08:47

We observed a solar microflare over a wide temperature range with three instruments aboard the SOHO spacecraft (CDS, EIT, & MDI), TRACE (1600 A), GOES, and RHESSI. The microflare's properties and behavior are those of a miniature flare undergoing gentle chromospheric evaporation, likely driven by nonthermal electrons. Extreme-ultraviolet spectra were obtained at a rapid cadence (9.8 s) with CDS in stare mode that included emission lines originating from the chromosphere (temperature of formation T_m ~ 0.01 MK) and transition region (TR, ~0.1 MK), to coronal (~1 MK) and flare (T_m ~ 8 MK) temperatures. Light curves derived from the CDS spectra and TRACE images (obtained with a variable cadence ~ 34 s) reveal two precursor brightenings before the microflare. After the precursors, chromospheric and TR emission are the first to increase, consistent with energy deposition by nonthermal electrons. The initial slow rise is followed by a brief (20 s) impulsive EUV burst in the chromospheric and TR lines, during which the coronal and hot flare emission gradually begin to increase. Relative Doppler velocities measured with CDS are directed upward with maximum values ~ 20 km s-1 during the second precursor and shortly before the impulsive peak, indicating gentle chromospheric evaporation. Electron densities derived from an O IV line intensity ratio (T_m ~ 0.16 MK) increased from 2.6e10 per cm^3 during quiescent times to 5.2e11 per cm^3 at the impulsive peak. The X-ray emission observed by RHESSI peaked after the impulsive peak at chromospheric and TR temperatures and revealed no evidence of emission from nonthermal electrons. Spectral fits to the RHESSI data indicate a maximum temperature of ~ 13 MK, consistent with a slightly lower temperature deduced from the GOES data. Magnetograms from MDI show that the microflare occurred in and around a growing island of negative magnetic polarity embedded in a large area of positive magnetic field. The microflare was compact, covering an area of 4e7 km^2 in the EIT image at 195 A, and appearing as a point source located 7 arcsec west of the EIT source in the RHESSI image. TRACE images suggest that the microflare filled small loops.

Authors: Brosius, J. W., and Holman, G. D.
Projects: RHESSI,SoHO-EIT,SoHO-MDI,SoHO-CDS,TRACE

Publication Status: ApJ, 692, 492 (2009 February 10)
Last Modified: 2009-02-25 07:56
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Chromospheric Evaporation in a Remote Solar Flare-Like Transient Observed at High Time Resolution With SOHO's CDS and RHESSI  

Jeffrey Brosius   Submitted: 2007-02-27 14:17

We present EUV light curves and Doppler velocity measurements for a small, remote flare-like transient observed at high time resolution (9.8 s) with soho's CDS during a goes M1.6 solar flare. The EUV observations include a brief precursor and an impulsive peak followed by a more gradual rise and decline of emission. Hard X-ray light curves obtained with hessi reveal a small burst just before the EUV impulsive rise, and another burst at the time of the more gradual EUV peak. hessi images show no emission at the location of the EUV transient due to limitations in dynamic range. During the impulsive phase we measure simultaneous, cospatial downward velocities sim 30 km s-1 in the chromospheric line of He I at 584.3 Å and the transition region line of O V at 629.7 AA, and upward velocities sim 20 km s-1 in the coronal line of Si XII at 520.7 AA. Fe XIX emission at 592.2 Å emerged during the impulsive phase, and revealed upward velocities approaching 150 km s-1. These observations demonstrate that flare-like explosive chromospheric evaporation occurred at a location remote from the primary region of particle acceleration, apparently driven by electron beams from the primary acceleration region.

Authors: Jeffrey W. Brosius and Gordon D. Holman
Projects: RHESSI,SoHO-EIT,SoHO-CDS

Publication Status: ApJL, in press (2007)
Last Modified: 2007-02-28 09:27
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Doppler Velocities Measured in Coronal Emission Lines From a Bright Point Observed With the EUNIS Sounding Rocket  

Jeffrey Brosius   Submitted: 2007-02-27 14:09

Spectroscopic measurements of a coronal bright point obtained with the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket instrument on 2006 April 12 show both upflows and downflows in all five of the best observed emission lines. Relative velocities on opposite sides of the feature were found to be pm 15 km s-1 in the line of He~II 303.8 AA (formed at T approx 5 imes 104 K), pm 14 km s-1 in Mg~IX 368.1 Å (T approx 9.5 imes 105 K), pm 26 km s-1 in Fe~XIV 334.2 Å (T approx 2.0 imes 106 K), and pm 35 km s-1 in both Fe~XVI 335.4 and 360.8 Å (T approx 2.5 imes 106 K). The latter are the hottest lines for which Doppler velocities have been reported in a bright point. Photospheric longitudinal magnetograms reveal that the photospheric magnetic fields underlying the bright point were canceling during the EUNIS observation. Based on existing bright point models, this suggests that the observed hot flows were associated with magnetic reconnection.

Authors: Jeffrey W. Brosius, Douglas M. Rabin, and Roger J. Thomas
Projects: EUNIS,SoHO-EIT,SoHO-MDI

Publication Status: ApJ, 656, L41 (2007 February 10)
Last Modified: 2007-02-27 15:58
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Radio Measurements of the Height of Strong Coronal Magnetic Fields Above Sunspots at the Solar Limb  

Jeffrey Brosius   Submitted: 2007-02-27 13:53

We measure coronal magnetic field strengths of 1750 G at a height of 8000 km above a large sunspot in NOAA Active Region 10652 at the west solar limb on 2004 July 29 using coordinated observations with the Very Large Array, the {em Transition Region And Coronal Explorer}, and three instruments (CDS, EIT, MDI) aboard the {em Solar and Heliospheric Observatory}. This observation is the first time that coronal radio brightness temperatures have been analyzed in a 15 GHz solar radio source projected above the limb. Observations at 8 GHz yield coronal magnetic field strengths of 960 G at a height of 12,000 km. The field strength measurements combine to yield a magnetic scale height LB = 6900 km. The radio brightness temperature maxima are located away from a sunspot plume that appears bright in EUV line emission formed at temperatures around several 105 K. We use the density-sensitive emission line intensity ratio of O IV 625.8/554.5 to derive an electron density ne (in cm-3) of log n_e = 10.1 pm 0.2 at the base of the plume.

Authors: Jeffrey W. Brosius and Stephen M. White
Projects: SoHO-EIT,SoHO-MDI,SoHO-CDS,TRACE

Publication Status: ApJ, 641, L69 (2006 April 10)
Last Modified: 2007-02-28 08:25
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Thermal Composition and Doppler Velocities in a Transequatorial Loop at the Solar Limb  

Jeffrey Brosius   Submitted: 2007-02-27 13:45

We observed a transequatorial loop (TEL) connecting NOAA Active Regions 10652 and 10653 at the west solar limb on 2004 July 29 with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) and the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) aboard the {em Solar and Heliospheric Observatory} (soho). Only the loop's northern leg was observed with CDS. The loop appeared bright and cospatial in EUV emission lines from ions formed over a wide range of temperature (T, in K) including He I (log T = 4.0), O III (log T = 4.9), O IV (5.2), O V (5.4), Ne VI (5.6), Ca X (5.9), Mg X (6.1), and Fe XII (log T = 6.1). This indicates that the loop plasma was multithermal, and covered roughly two orders of magnitude in temperature. Our measurement of He I, O III, and O IV line emission reveals the coolest plasma ever detected in a TEL. The most likely explanation for the wide range of cospatial temperatures in the TEL is that it consisted of numerous sub-resolution strands, all at different temperatures. Each of the lines formed at temperatures less than 106 K exhibited relative Doppler blueshifts in the TEL that corresponded to velocities toward the observer larger than 30 km s-1, where the two strongest cool lines (He I at 584.3 Å and O V at 629.7 AA) yielded maximum values of 37 and 41 km s-1, respectively. The presence of cool plasma in the TEL at heights several times those of the cool ions' scale heights suggests that the loop maintained a steady flow of cool plasma in order to remain visible at the low temperatures.

Authors: Jeffrey W. Brosius
Projects: SoHO-EIT,SoHO-MDI,SoHO-CDS

Publication Status: ApJ, 636, L57 (2006 January 1)
Last Modified: 2007-02-28 08:37
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Properties of a Sunspot Plume Observed With the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer Aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory  

Jeffrey Brosius   Submitted: 2007-02-27 13:31

We used three instruments (CDS, EIT, MDI) aboard the {em Solar and Heliospheric Observatory} spacecraft to observe the large sunspot in NOAA Active Region 8539 on 1999 May 9 and 13. The spot contained a bright plume, most easily seen in EUV emission lines formed at 5.2 stackrel{<}{sim} log T stackrel{<}{sim} 5.7 (where T is the temperature in K), in its umbra on both dates. The plume's differential emission measure (DEM) exhibited one and only one broad peak centered around log T sim 5.8 on May 9 and around log T sim 5.6 on May 13, and exceeded the DEM of the quiet sun by more than an order of magnitude at these temperatures. The high temperature portion of the plume's DEM resembled that of nearby quiet sun areas. Intensity ratios of the O IV lines at 625.8 Å and 554.5 Å yield log n_e (where n_e is the electron density in cm-3) of 9.6+0.3-0.6 in the plume on May 9 and 9.7+0.2-0.2 on May 13; values of 9.4+0.3-0.9 and 9.4+0.2-0.3 were obtained in the quiet sun areas on the same dates. Based upon abundance enhancements derived from transition region emission lines of Ca, an element with low first ionization potential, elemental abundances in the plume appear to be coronal rather than photospheric. The plume plasma reveals a bipolar Doppler velocity flow pattern, in which maximum downflows in excess of 37 km s-1 are observed in the northeast portion of the plume, and maximum upflows that exceed 52 km s-1 are observed in the northwest.

Authors: Jeffrey W. Brosius and Enrico Landi
Projects: SoHO-EIT,SoHO-MDI,SoHO-CDS

Publication Status: ApJ, 632, 1196 (2005 October 20)
Last Modified: 2007-02-28 08:32
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Mass Flows in a Disappearing Sunspot Plume  

Jeffrey Brosius   Submitted: 2007-02-27 13:22

We observed a large sunspot in NOAA Region 9535 on 2001 July 12, 15, 17, and 19 with three instruments (CDS, EIT, MDI) aboard the {em Solar and Heliospheric Observatory} satellite. EUV emission lines of O IV (formed at logarithmic temperature of 5.2), O V (5.4), Ne IV (5.2), Ne V (5.5), Ne VI (5.6), Ne VII (5.7), and Ca X (5.9) revealed a large bright plume within the sunspot penumbra on July 12 and 15, a smaller, dimmer plume on July 17, and no plume on July 19. Downflows of 25 km s-1 or more were measured within the sunspot plume on July 12 and 15. By July 17 the downflow area had shrunk in size, the downflows had diminished in magnitude, and upflows were measured in the umbra and parts of the penumbra outside the plume. By July 19 downflows were no longer observed, but had been replaced entirely with upflows of 15 - 25 km s-1 in the umbra and portions of the penumbra. This is the first time that the disappearance of a sunspot plume has been observed to occur simultaneously with a dramatic change in flow velocity pattern in the sunspot plume and umbra. On July 12 upflows northeast of the sunspot were observed along with the downflows in the plume. Electron density measurements based upon intensity ratios of the O IV lines at 625.8 Å and 554.5 Å indicate a significantly greater value in the upflow zone than in the plume, consistent with siphon flow as the driver of the observed velocities; however, the line at 625.8 Å is very weak and blended in the red wing of the Mg X line at 624.9 AA, so derived densities are highly uncertain.

Authors: Jeffrey W. Brosius
Projects: SoHO-EIT,SoHO-MDI,SoHO-CDS

Publication Status: ApJ, 622, 1216 (2005 April 1)
Last Modified: 2007-02-28 08:35
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Close Association of an Extreme-Ultraviolet Sunspot Plume with Depressions in the Sunspot Radio Emission  

Jeffrey Brosius   Submitted: 2007-02-27 13:12

We obtained coordinated observations of the large sunspot in NOAA Region 8539 on 1999 May 9 and 13 with the Very Large Array and three instruments (CDS, EIT, MDI) aboard the {em Solar and Heliospheric Observatory} satellite. The EUV observations reveal a plume in the sunspot umbra on both observing dates. The plume appears brightest in emission lines formed at temperatures between 1.6 imes 105 and 5.0 imes 105 K. Radio emission from the sunspot umbra is dominated by thermal gyroemission from the plume, which accounts for radio brightness temperatures <1 imes 106 K in the umbra on both dates, as well as umbral brightness temperature depressions in the 4.535 and 8.065 GHz observations on May 13. A compact 14.665 GHz source persists near the umbra/penumbra boundary during our observing period, indicating a long-lived, compact flux tube with coronal magnetic field strength of at least 1748 G. It occurs in a portion of the sunspot that appears very dark in EUV emission.

Authors: Jeffrey W. Brosius and Stephen M. White
Projects: SoHO-EIT,SoHO-MDI,SoHO-CDS

Publication Status: ApJ, 601, 546 (2004 January 20)
Last Modified: 2007-02-28 08:13
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Extreme-Ultraviolet and X-Ray Spectroscopy of a Solar Flare Loop Observed at High Time Resolution: a Case Study in Chromospheric Evaporation  

Jeffrey Brosius   Submitted: 2004-09-07 10:11

We present EUV and X-ray light curves and Doppler velocity measurements for a GOES class M2 solar flare observed in NOAA Region 9433 on 2001 April 24 at high time resolution with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite (9.83 s), and the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) and Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) aboard the Yohkoh satellite (9.00 s). Coordinated imagery with SOHO's Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) and the TRACE satellite reveal that the CDS slit was centered on the flare commencement site; coordinated magnetograms from SOHO's Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) are consistent with this site being the footpoint of a flare loop anchored in positive magnetic field near the outer edge of a sunspot's penumbra. CDS observations include the preflare quiescent phase, two precursors, the flare impulsive and peak phases, and its slow decline. We find that (1) the average wavelengths of O III, O IV, O V, Ne VI, and He II lines measured during the preflare quiescent phase are equal (within the measurement uncertainties) to those measured during the late decline phase, indicating that they can be used as reference standards against which to measure Doppler velocities during the flare; (2) the EUV lines of O III, O IV, O V, and He II exhibit upflow velocities ~ 40 km s-1 during both precursor events, suggestive of small-scale chromospheric evaporation; (3) the Fe XIX EUV intensity rises and stays above its preflare noise level during the second (later) precursor; (4) the maximum upflow velocities measured in Fe XIX with CDS (64 km s-1) and in Ca XIX (65 km s-1) and S XV (78 km s-1) with BCS occur during the flare impulsive phase, and are simultaneous within the instrumental time resolutions; (5) the Fe XIX EUV intensity begins its impulsive rise nearly 90 s later than the rise in intensities of the cooler lines; (6) hard X-ray emission arises nearly 60 s after the cool EUV lines begin their impulsive intensity rise; (7) the EUV lines of O III, O IV, O V, and He II exhibit downflow velocities ~ 40 km s-1 during the flare impulsive phase, suggesting momentum balance between the hot upflowing material and the cool downflowing material. Our observations are consistent with energy transport by nonthermal particle beams in chromospheric evaporation theory.

Authors: Jeffrey W. Brosius and Kenneth J. H. Phillips
Projects: SoHO-EIT,SoHO-MDI,SoHO-CDS,TRACE,Yohkoh-BCS,Yohkoh-HXT

Publication Status: ApJ, 613, 580 (2004 September 20)
Last Modified: 2007-02-28 08:29
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Chromospheric Evaporation and Warm Rain During a Solar Flare Observed in High Time Resolution with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer Aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory  

Jeffrey Brosius   Submitted: 2004-09-07 09:49

We present EUV light curves, Doppler shifts, and line broadening measurements for a flaring solar active region obtained with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) aboard the NASA/ESA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite under conditions of (1) comprehensive temporal coverage (including the quiescent preflare, impulsive, and gradual decline phases), (2) high time resolution (9.83 s), and (3) narrow field of view (4 arcsec by 20 arcsec). The four strong lines of O III at 599.587 A, O V at 629.732 A, Mg X at 624.937 A, and Fe XIX at 592.225 A are analyzed, and provide diagnostics of plasma dynamics for 4.9 < log T < 6.9. Wavelengths and widths measured during the preflare and late decline phases provide standards against which Doppler shifts and excess line broadening are measured during the impulsive and early decline phases. The entire profile of all four lines is blueshifted early during the impulsive rise of the flare, but only the O III, O V, and Mg X lines subsequently exhibit multiple components and downflows. These downflows provide evidence of ``warm rain'' due to cooling coronal flare plasma following chromospheric evaporation during the impulsive phase. O III and O V exhibit a pronounced precursor brightening during which the Fe XIX emission emerges above the noise; this, combined with the fact that the O III and O V intensities begin their impulsive rise earlier than do those of Mg X and Fe XIX, is consistent with the transport of coronal flare energy to the chromosphere by nonthermal particle beams.

Authors: Jeffrey W. Brosius
Projects: SoHO-EIT,SoHO-CDS

Publication Status: ApJ, 586, 1417 (2003 April 1)
Last Modified: 2007-02-28 08:20
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Abstracts by Author
Chromospheric Evaporation in Solar Flare Loop Strands Observed with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer Aboard Hinode
Early Chromospheric Response During a Solar Microflare Observed With SOHO's CDS and RHESSI
Conversion From Explosive to Gentle Chromospheric Evaporation During a Solar Flare
Observations of the Thermal and Dynamic Evolution of a Solar Microflare
Chromospheric Evaporation in a Remote Solar Flare-Like Transient Observed at High Time Resolution With SOHO's CDS and RHESSI
Doppler Velocities Measured in Coronal Emission Lines From a Bright Point Observed With the EUNIS Sounding Rocket
Radio Measurements of the Height of Strong Coronal Magnetic Fields Above Sunspots at the Solar Limb
Thermal Composition and Doppler Velocities in a Transequatorial Loop at the Solar Limb
Properties of a Sunspot Plume Observed With the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer Aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
Mass Flows in a Disappearing Sunspot Plume
Close Association of an Extreme-Ultraviolet Sunspot Plume with Depressions in the Sunspot Radio Emission
Extreme-Ultraviolet and X-Ray Spectroscopy of a Solar Flare Loop Observed at High Time Resolution: a Case Study in Chromospheric Evaporation
Chromospheric Evaporation and Warm Rain During a Solar Flare Observed in High Time Resolution with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer Aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory

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