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A Two-Step Magnetic Reconnection in a Confined X-class Flare in Solar Active Region 12673  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2018-11-29 18:12

Solar flares are often associated with coronal eruptions, but there are confined ones without eruption, even for some X-class flares. How such large flares occurred and why they are confined are still not well understood. Here we studied a confined X2.2 flare in NOAA 12673 on 2017 September 6. It exhibits two episodes of flare brightening with rather complex, atypical ribbons. Based on topology analysis of extrapolated coronal magnetic field, we revealed that there is a two-step magnetic reconnection process during the flare. Prior to the flare, there is a magnetic flux rope (MFR) with one leg rooted in a rotating sunspot. Neighboring to the leg is a magnetic null-point structure. The sunspot drives the MFR to expand, pushing magnetic flux to the null point, and reconnection is first triggered there. The disturbance from the null-point reconnection triggers the second reconnection, i.e., a tether-cutting reconnection below the rope. However, these two reconnections failed to produce an eruption, because the rope is firmly held by its strapping flux. Furthermore, we compared this flare with an eruptive X9.3 flare in the same region with 2 hours later, which has a similar MFR configuration. The key difference between them is that, for the confined flare, the MFR is fully below the threshold of torus instability, while for the eruptive one, the MFR reaches entirely above the threshold. This study provides a good evidence supporting that reconnection alone may not be able to trigger eruption, rather, MHD instability plays a more important role.

Authors: Peng Zou, Chaowei Jiang, Xueshang Feng, Pingbing Zuo, Yi Wang, Fengsi Wei
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: accept by ApJ
Last Modified: 2018-11-30 09:16
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Formation and Eruption of an Active Region Sigmoid. II. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of a Multistage Eruption  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2018-10-30 21:05

Solar eruptions, mainly eruptive flares with coronal mass ejections, represent the most powerful drivers of space weather. Due to the low plasma-β nature of the solar corona, solar eruption has its roots in the evolution of the coronal magnetic field. Although various theoretical models of the eruptive magnetic evolution have been proposed, they still oversimplify the realistic process in observation, which shows a much more complex process due to the invisible complex magnetic environment. In this paper, we continue our study of a complex sigmoid eruption in solar active region 11283, which is characterized by a multipolar configuration embedding a null-point topology and a sigmoidal magnetic flux rope. Based on extreme ultraviolet observations, it has been suggested that a three-stage magnetic reconnection scenario might explain the complex flare process. Here we reproduce the complex magnetic evolution during the eruption using a data-constrained high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation. The simulation clearly demonstrates three reconnection episodes, which occurred in sequence in different locations in the corona. Through these reconnections, the initial sigmoidal flux rope breaks one of its legs, and quickly gives birth to a new tornado-like magnetic structure that is highly twisted and has multiple connections to the Sun due to the complex magnetic topology. The simulated magnetic field configuration and evolution are found to be consistent with observations of the corona loops, filaments, and flare ribbons. Our study demonstrates that significant insight into a realistic, complex eruption event can be gained by a numerical MHD simulation that is constrained or driven by observed data.

Authors: Chaowei Jiang, Xueshang Feng, and Qiang Hu
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: Published in ApJ
Last Modified: 2018-10-31 12:08
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Reconstruction of a Large-scale Pre-flare Coronal Current Sheet Associated with an Homologous X-shaped Flare  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2017-10-10 19:32

As a fundamental magnetic structure in the solar corona, electric current sheets (CSs) can form either prior to or during solar flare, and they are essential for magnetic energy dissipation in the solar corona by enabling magnetic reconnection. However static reconstruction of CS is rare, possibly due to limitation inherent in available coronal field extrapolation codes. Here we present the reconstruction of a large-scale pre-flare CS in solar active region 11967 using an MHD-relaxation model constrained by SDO/HMI vector magnetogram. The CS is found to be associated with a set of peculiar homologous flares that exhibit unique X-shaped ribbons and loops occurring in a quadrupolar magnetic configuration. This is evidenced by that the field lines traced from the CS to the photosphere form an X shape which nearly precisely reproduces the shape of the observed flare ribbons, suggesting that the flare is a product of the dissipation of the CS through reconnection. The CS forms in a hyperbolic flux tube, which is an intersection of two quasi-separatrix layers. The recurrence of the X-shaped flares might be attributed to the repetitive formation and dissipation of the CS, as driven by the photospheric footpoint motions. These results demonstrate the power of data-constrained MHD model in reproducing CS in the corona as well as providing insight into the magnetic mechanism of solar flares.

Authors: Chaowei Jiang, Xiaoli Yan, Xueshang Feng, Aiying Duan, Qiang Hu, Pingbing Zuo, Yi Wang
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: Accepted by ApJ
Last Modified: 2017-10-11 06:20
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Comparison of Two Coronal Magnetic Field Models for Reconstructing a Sigmoidal Solar Active Region With Coronal Loops  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2017-10-10 19:30

Magnetic field extrapolation is an important tool to study the three-dimensional (3D) solar coronal magnetic field which is difficult to directly measure. Various analytic models and numerical codes exist but their results often drastically differ. Thus a critical comparison of the modeled magnetic field lines with the observed coronal loops is strongly required to establish the credibility of the model. Here we compare two different non-potential extrapolation codes, a non-linear force-free field code (CESE-MHD-NLFFF) and a non-force-free field (NFFF) code in modeling a solar active region (AR) that has a sigmoidal configuration just before a major flare erupted from the region. A 2D coronal-loop tracing and fitting method is employed to study the 3D misalignment angles between the extrapolated magnetic field lines and the EUV loops as imaged by SDO/AIA. It is found that the CESE-MHD-NLFFF code with preprocessed magnetogram performs the best, outputting a field which matches the coronal loops in the AR core imaged in AIA 94 Å with a misalignment angle of ~10 degree. This suggests that the CESE-MHD-NLFFF code, even without using the information of coronal loops in constraining the magnetic field, performs as good as some coronal-loop forward-fitting models. For the loops as imaged by AIA 171 Å in the outskirts of the AR, all the codes including the potential-field give comparable results of mean misalignment angle (~30 degree). Thus further improvement of the codes is needed for a better reconstruction of the long loops enveloping the core region.

Authors: Aiying Duan, Chaowei Jiang, Qiang Hu, Huai Zhang, G. Allen Gary, S. T. Wu, Jinbin Cao
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: published in ApJ
Last Modified: 2017-10-11 06:20
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A Magnetic Bald-Patch Flare in Solar Active Region 11117  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2017-10-10 19:28

With SDO observations and a data-constrained MHD model, we identify a confined multi-ribbon flare occurred on 2010 October 25 in solar active region 11117 as a magnetic bald patch (BP) flare with strong evidences. From the photospheric magnetic field observed by SDO/HMI, we find there is indeed magnetic BPs on the PILs which match parts of the flare ribbons. From the 3D coronal magnetic field derived from a MHD relaxation model constrained by the vector magnetograms, we find strikingly good agreement of the BP separatrix surface (BPSS) footpoints with the flare ribbons, and the BPSS itself with the hot flaring loop system. Moreover, the triggering of the BP flare can be attributed to a small flux emergence under the lobe of the BPSS, and the relevant change of the coronal magnetic field through the flare is well reproduced by the pre-flare and post-flare MHD solutions, which match the corresponding pre and post-flare AIA observations, respectively. Our work contributes to the study of non-typical flares that constitute the majority of solar flares but cannot be explained by the standard flare model.

Authors: Chaowei Jiang, Xueshang Feng, S. T. Wu, Qiang Hu
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: published in RAA
Last Modified: 2017-10-11 06:20
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How did a Major Confined Flare Occur in Super Solar Active Region 12192?  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2016-06-30 21:31

We study the physical mechanism of a major X-class solar flare that occurred in the super NOAA active region (AR) 12192 using a data-driven numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling complemented with observations. With the evolving magnetic fields observed at the solar surface as bottom boundary input, we drive an MHD system to evolve self-consistently in correspondence with the realistic coronal evolution. During a two-day time interval, the modeled coronal field has been slowly stressed by the photospheric field evolution,which gradually created a large-scale coronal current sheet, i.e., a narrow layer with intense current, in the core of the AR. The current layer was successively enhanced until it became so thin that a tether-cutting reconnection between the sheared magnetic arcades was set in, which led to a flare. The modeled reconnecting field lines and their footpoints match well the observed hot flaring loops and the flare ribbons, respectively, suggesting that the model has successfully "reproduced" the macroscopic magnetic process of the flare. In particular, with simulation, we explained why this event is a confined eruption-the consequent of the reconnection is the shared arcade instead of a newly formed flux rope. We also found much weaker magnetic implosion effect comparing to many other X-class flares.

Authors: Chaowei Jiang, Shi Tsan Wu, Vasyl B Yurchyshyn, Haimin Wang, Xueshang Feng, Qiang Hu
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: accept by ApJ
Last Modified: 2016-07-06 10:36
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Data-driven magnetohydrodynamic modelling of a flux-emerging active region leading to solar eruption  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2016-05-16 22:34

Solar eruptions are well-recognized as major drivers of space weather but what causes them remains an open question. Here we show how an eruption is initiated in a non-potential magnetic flux-emerging region using magnetohydrodynamic modelling driven directly by solar magnetograms. Our model simulates the coronal magnetic field following a long-duration quasi-static evolution to its fast eruption. The field morphology resembles a set of extreme ultraviolet images for the whole process. Study of the magnetic field suggests that in this event, the key transition from the pre-eruptive to eruptive state is due to the establishment of a positive feedback between the upward expansion of internal stressed magnetic arcades of new emergence and an external magnetic reconnection which triggers the eruption. Such a nearly realistic simulation of a solar eruption from origin to onset can provide important insight into its cause, and also has the potential for improving space weather modelling.

Authors: Chaowei Jiang, S. T. Wu, Xuesheng Feng, Qiang Hu
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: Published in Nature Communications
Last Modified: 2016-05-17 12:04
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A Comparison Study of a Solar Active-Region Eruptive Filament and a Neighboring Non-Eruptive Filament  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2015-11-09 02:16

Solar active region (AR) 11283 is a very magnetically complex region and it has produced many eruptions. However, there exists a non-eruptive filament in the plage region just next to an eruptive one in the AR, which gives us an opportunity to perform a comparison analysis of these two filaments. The coronal magnetic field extrapolated using a CESE-MHD-NLFFF code (Jiang & Feng 2013) reveals that two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) exist in the same extrapolation box supporting these two filaments, respectively. Analysis of the magnetic field shows that the eruptive MFR contains a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) co-spatial very well with a pre-eruptive EUV sigmoid, which is consistent with the BPSS model for coronal sigmoids. The magnetic dips of the non-eruptive MFRs match Hα observation of the non-eruptive filament strikingly well, which strongly supports the MFR-dip model for filaments. Compared with the non-eruptive MFR/filament (with a length of about 200 Mm), the eruptive MFR/filament is much smaller (with a length of about 20 Mm), but it contains most of the magnetic free energy in the extrapolation box and holds a much higher free energy density than the non-eruptive one. Both the MFRs are weakly twisted and cannot trigger kink instability. The AR eruptive MFR is unstable because its axis reaches above a critical height for torus instability, at which the overlying closed arcades can no longer confine the MFR stably. On the contrary, the quiescent MFR is very firmly held by its overlying field, as its axis apex is far below the torus-instability threshold height. Overall, this comparison investigation supports that MFR can exist prior to eruption and the ideal MHD instability can trigger MFR eruption.

Authors: Chaowei Jiang, S. T. Wu, Xueshang Feng, Qiang Hu
Projects: None

Publication Status: accepted by RAA
Last Modified: 2015-11-09 13:45
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Testing a Solar Coronal Magnetic Field Extrapolation Code with the Titov-Demoulin Magnetic Flux Rope Model  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2015-11-09 02:14

In the solar corona, magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of magnetic field from boundary data is the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information of the corona. As a result, the ability of reliable recovering coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code (CESE-MHD-NLFFF, Jiang & Feng 2012) is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov & Demoulin (1999), which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding an semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By using only the vector field in the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field is reconstructed with high accuracy. Especially, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade, i.e., the "hyperbolic flux tube" and "bald patch separatrix surface", are also reliably reproduced. By this test, we demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code can be applied to recovering magnetic flux rope in the solar corona as long as the vector magnetogram satisfies the force-free constraints.

Authors: Chaowei Jiang, Xueshang Feng
Projects: None

Publication Status: accepted by RAA
Last Modified: 2015-11-09 13:45
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Nonlinear Force-Free Field Extrapolation of a Coronal Magnetic Flux Rope Supporting a Large-Scale Filament from Photospheric Vector Magnetogram  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2014-04-03 09:11

Solar filament are commonly thought to be supported in magnetic dips, in particular, of magnetic flux ropes (FRs). In this Letter, from the observed photospheric vector magnetogram, we implement a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of a coronal magnetic FR that supports a large-scale intermediate filament between an active region and a weak polarity region. This result is the first in that current NLFFF extrapolations with presence of FRs are limited to relatively small-scale filaments that are close to sunspots and along main polarity inversion line (PIL) with strong transverse field and magnetic shear, and the existence of a FR is usually predictable. In contrast, the present filament lies along the weak-field region (photospheric field strength ≲100 G), where the PIL is very fragmented due to small parasitic polarities on both side of the PIL and the transverse field has a low value of signal-to-noise ratio. Thus it represents a far more difficult challenge to extrapolate a large-scale FR in such case. We demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code is competent for the challenge. The numerically reproduced magnetic dips of the extrapolated FR match observations of the filament and its barbs very well, which supports strongly the FR-dip model for filaments. The filament is stably sustained because the FR is weakly twisted and strongly confined by the overlying closed arcades.

Authors: Chaowei Jiang, S. T. Wu, Xueshang Feng, Qiang Hu
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: Accepted by ApJL
Last Modified: 2014-04-07 10:55
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Formation and Eruption of an Active Region Sigmoid: I. Study by Nonlinear Force-Free Field Modeling  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2013-10-30 20:55

We present a magnetic analysis of the formation and eruption of an active region (AR) sigmoid in AR 11283 from 2011 September 4 to 6. To follow the quasi-static evolution of the coronal magnetic field, we reconstruct a time sequence of static fields using a recently developed nonlinear force-free field model constrained by the SDO/HMI vector magnetograms. A detailed analysis of the fields compared with the SDO/AIA observations suggests the following scenario for the evolution of the region. Initially, a new bipole emerges into the negative polarity of a pre-existing bipolar AR, forming a null point topology between the two flux systems. A weakly twisted flux rope (FR) is then built up slowly in the embedded core region, largely through flux-cancellation photospheric reconnections, forming a bald patch separatrix surface (BPSS) separating the FR from its ambient field. The FR grows gradually until its axis runs into a torus instability (TI) domain near the end of the third day, and the BPSS also develops a fully S-shape. Unlike in the case of standard TI, the FR does not erupt instantly since it is still attached at the photosphere along the bald patch (BP) portion of the polarity inversion line. The combined effects of the TI-driven expansion of the FR and the line-tying at the BP tear the FR into two parts with the upper portion freely expelled and the lower portion remaining behind the post-flare arcades. This process dynamically perturbs the BPSS and results in the transient enhanced brightening of the sigmoid. The accelerated expansion of the upper portion of the FR strongly pushes its envelope flux near the null point and triggers breakout reconnection at the null, as evidenced by a remarkable circular flare ribbon, which further facilitates the eruption. We discuss the important implications of these results for the formation and disruption of sigmoid region with FR.

Authors: Chaowei Jiang, S. T. Wu, Xueshang Feng, Qiang Hu
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: Accepted by ApJ
Last Modified: 2013-10-31 08:18
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MHD Simulation of a Sigmoid Eruption of Active Region 11283  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2013-06-10 22:26

Current magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the initiation of solar eruptions are still commonly carried out with idealized magnetic field models, whereas the realistic coronal field prior to eruptions can possibly be reconstructed from the observable photospheric field. Using a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation prior to a sigmoid eruption in AR 11283 as the initial condition in a MHD model, we successfully simulate the realistic initiation process of the eruption event, as is confirmed by a remarkable resemblance to the SDO/AIA observations. Analysis of the pre-eruption field reveals that the envelope flux of the sigmoidal core contains a coronal null and furthermore the flux rope is prone to a torus instability. Observations suggest that reconnection at the null cuts overlying tethers and likely triggers the torus instability of the flux rope, which results in the eruption. This kind of simulation demonstrates the capability of modeling the realistic solar eruptions to provide the initiation process.

Authors: Chaowei Jiang, Xueshang Feng, S. T. Wu, Qiang Hu
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: Accepted for ApJL
Last Modified: 2013-06-11 11:31
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Preprocess the Photospheric Vector Magnetograms for NLFFF Extrapolation using a Potential Field Model and an Optimization Method  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2013-06-09 22:04

Numerical reconstruction/extrapolation of coronal nonlinear force-free magnetic field (NLFFF) usually takes the photospheric vector magnetogram as input at the bottom boundary. Magnetic field observed at the photosphere, however, contains force which is in conflict with the fundamental assumption of the force-free model and measurement noise which is unfavorable for practical computation. Preprocessing of the raw magnetogram has been proposed by Wiegelmann, Inhester, and Sakurai (2006) to remove the force and noise for providing better input for NLFFF modeling. In this paper we develop a new code of magnetogram preprocessing which is consistent with our extrapolation method CESE-MHD-NLFFF (Jiang, Feng, and Xiang, 2012; Jiang and Feng, 2012). Basing on a magnetic-splitting rule that a magnetic field can be split into a potential field part and a non-potential part, we split the magnetogram and deal with the two parts separately. Preprocessing of the magnetogram's potential part is based on a numerical potential field model, and the non-potential part is preprocessed using the similar optimization method of Wiegelmann et al (2006). The code is applied to the SDO/HMI data and results show that the method can remove efficiently the force and noise and improve the quality of extrapolation.

Authors: Chaowei Jiang, Xueshang Feng
Projects: SDO-HMI

Publication Status: Accepted for publication in Solar Physics
Last Modified: 2013-06-10 09:38
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Extrapolation of the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field from SDO/HMI Magnetogram by a CESE-MHD-NLFFF Code  

Chaowei Jiang   Submitted: 2013-06-06 23:56

Due to the absence of direct measurement, the magnetic field in the solar corona is usually extrapolated from the photosphere in numerical way. At the moment, the nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) model dominates the physical models for field extrapolation in the low corona. Recently we have developed a new NLFFF model with MHD relaxation to reconstruct the coronal magnetic field. This method is based on CESE-MHD model with the conservation-element/solution-element (CESE) spacetime scheme. In this paper, we report the application of the CESE-MHD-NLFFF code to SDO/HMI data with magnetograms sampled for two active regions (ARs), NOAA AR 11158 and 11283, both of which were very non-potential, producing X-class flares and eruptions. The raw magnetograms are preprocessed to remove the force and then inputted into the extrapolation code. Qualitative comparison of the results with the SDO/AIA images shows that our code can reconstruct magnetic field lines resembling the EUV-observed coronal loops. Most important structures of the active regions are reproduced excellently, like the highly-sheared field lines that suspend filaments in AR 11158 and twisted flux rope which corresponds to a sigmoid in AR 11283. Quantitative assess of the results shows that the force-free constraint is fulfilled very well in the strong-field regions but apparently not that well in the weak-field regions because of data noise and numerical errors in the small currents.

Authors: Chaowei Jiang, Xueshang Feng
Projects: SDO-AIA,SDO-HMI

Publication Status: ApJ, 2013, 769, 144
Last Modified: 2013-06-07 21:16
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Abstracts by Author
A Two-Step Magnetic Reconnection in a Confined X-class Flare in Solar Active Region 12673
Formation and Eruption of an Active Region Sigmoid. II. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of a Multistage Eruption
Reconstruction of a Large-scale Pre-flare Coronal Current Sheet Associated with an Homologous X-shaped Flare
Comparison of Two Coronal Magnetic Field Models for Reconstructing a Sigmoidal Solar Active Region With Coronal Loops
A Magnetic Bald-Patch Flare in Solar Active Region 11117
How did a Major Confined Flare Occur in Super Solar Active Region 12192?
Data-driven magnetohydrodynamic modelling of a flux-emerging active region leading to solar eruption
A Comparison Study of a Solar Active-Region Eruptive Filament and a Neighboring Non-Eruptive Filament
Testing a Solar Coronal Magnetic Field Extrapolation Code with the Titov-Demoulin Magnetic Flux Rope Model
Nonlinear Force-Free Field Extrapolation of a Coronal Magnetic Flux Rope Supporting a Large-Scale Filament from Photospheric Vector Magnetogram
Formation and Eruption of an Active Region Sigmoid: I. Study by Nonlinear Force-Free Field Modeling
MHD Simulation of a Sigmoid Eruption of Active Region 11283
Preprocess the Photospheric Vector Magnetograms for NLFFF Extrapolation using a Potential Field Model and an Optimization Method
Extrapolation of the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field from SDO/HMI Magnetogram by a CESE--MHD--NLFFF Code

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