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Quasi-periodic Counter-propagating Fast Magnetosonic Wave Trains from Neighboring Flares: SDO/AIA Observations and 3D MHD Modeling  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2018-05-01 22:50

Since their discovery by SDO/AIA in EUV, rapid (phase speeds of ~1000 km s-1), quasi-periodic, fast-mode propagating wave trains (QFPs) have been observed accompanying many solar flares. They typically propagate in funnel-like structures associated with the expanding magnetic field topology of the active regions (ARs). The waves provide information on the associated flare pulsations and the magnetic structure through coronal seismology. The reported waves usually originate from a single localized source associated with the flare. Here, we report the first detection of counter-propagating QFPs associated with two neighboring flares on 2013 May 22, apparently connected by large-scale, trans-equatorial coronal loops. We present the first results of 3D MHD model of counter-propagating QFPs an idealized bi-polar AR. We investigate the excitation, propagation, nonlinearity, and interaction of the counter-propagating waves for a range of key model parameters, such as the properties of the sources and the background magnetic structure. In addition to QFPs, we also find evidence of trapped fast (kink) and slow mode waves associated with the event. We apply coronal seismology to determine the magnetic field strength in an oscillating loop during the event. Our model results are in qualitative agreement with the AIA-observed counter propagating waves and are used to identify the various MHD wave modes associated with the observed event providing insights into their linear and nonlinear interactions. Our observations provide the first direct evidence of counter-propagating fast magnetosonic waves that can potentially lead to turbulent cascade and carry significant energy flux for coronal heating in low-corona magnetic structures.

Authors: Leon Ofman; Wei Liu
Projects: SDO-AIA

Publication Status: ApJ, in press
Last Modified: 2018-05-02 12:06
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Three dimensional MHD Modeling of Vertical Kink Oscillations in an Active Region Plasma Curtain  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2015-05-21 08:03

Observations on 2011 August 9 of an X6.9-class flare in active region (AR) 11263 by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), were followed by a rare detection of vertical kink oscillations in a large-scale coronal active region plasma curtain in EUV coronal lines. The damped oscillations with periods in the range 8.8-14.9 min were detected and analyzed recently. Our aim is to study the generation and propagation of the MHD oscillations in the plasma curtain taking into account realistic 3D magnetic and density structure of the curtain. We also aim at testing and improving coronal seismology for more accurate determination of the magnetic field than with standard method. We use the observed morphological and dynamical conditions, as well as plasma properties of the coronal curtain based on Differential Emission Measure (DEM) analysis to initialize a 3D MHD model of its vertical and transverse oscillations by implementing the impulsively excited velocity pulse mimicking the flare generated nonlinear fast magnetosonic propagating disturbance interacting with the curtain obliquely. The model is simplified by utilizing initial dipole magnetic field, isothermal energy equation, and gravitationally stratified density guided by observational parameters. Using the 3D MHD model, we are able to reproduce the details of the vertical oscillations and study the process of their excitation by nonlinear fast magnetosonic pulse, propagation, and damping, finding agreement with the observations. We estimate the accuracy of simplified slab-based coronal seismology by comparing the determined magnetic field strength to actual values from the 3D MHD modeling results and demonstrate the importance of taking into account more realistic magnetic geometry and density for improving coronal seismology.

Authors: L. Ofman, M. Parisi, A.K. Srivastava
Projects: SDO-AIA

Publication Status: Submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics
Last Modified: 2015-05-25 09:29
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Relative drifts and temperature anisotropies of protons and α particles in the expanding solar wind - 2.5D hybrid simulations  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2015-01-24 09:50

We perform 2.5D hybrid simulations to investigate the origin and evolution of relative drift speeds between protons and α particles in the collisionless turbulent low-β solar wind plasma. We study the generation of differential streaming by wave-particle interactions and absorption of turbulent wave spectra. Next we focus on the role of the relative drifts for the turbulent heating and acceleration of ions in the collisionless fast solar wind streams. The energy source is given by an initial broad-band spectrum of parallel propagating Alfvén-cyclotron waves, which co-exists with the plasma and is self-consistently coupled to the perpendicular ion bulk velocities. We include the effect of a gradual solar wind expansion, which cools and decelerates the minor ions. This paper for the first time considers the combined effect of self-consistently initialized dispersive turbulent Alfvénic spectra with differentially streaming protons and α particles in the expanding solar wind outflows within a 2.5D hybrid simulation study. In the non-expanding wind, we find a threshold value of the differential streaming V α p = 0.5 VA, for which the relative drift speed remains nearly steady. For ions, streaming below the threshold value, the waves act to increase the magnitude of the relative drift speed. Ions, which stream faster than the threshold value become subject to nonlinear streaming instability and as the system evolves their bulk velocities decrease. We find that the solar wind expansion strongly affects the relative drift speeds and significantly slows down both ion species for all values of the relative drift speeds considered in this study.

Authors: Maneva, Y., Ofman, L., Vinas, A.-F.
Projects: None

Publication Status: A&A, submitted
Last Modified: 2015-01-26 10:04
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Ion Heating in Inhomogeneous Expanding Solar Wind Plasma: The Role of Parallel and Oblique Ion-Cyclotron Waves  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2015-01-13 03:32

Remote sensing observations of coronal holes show that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic. In-situ observations of fast solar wind streams provide direct evidence for turbulent Alfvén wave spectrum, left-hand polarized ion-cyclotron waves, and He^++ - proton drift in the solar wind plasma, which can produce temperature anisotropies by resonant absorption and perpendicular heating of the ions. Furthermore, the solar wind is expected to be inhomogeneous on decreasing scales approaching the Sun. We study the heating of solar wind ions in inhomogeneous plasma with a 2.5D hybrid code. We include the expansion of the solar wind in an inhomogeneous plasma background, combined with the effects of a turbulent wave spectrum of Alfvénic fluctuations and initial ion-proton drifts. We study the influence of these effects on the perpendicular ion heating and cooling and on the spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations in the inhomogeneous background wind. We find that inhomogeneities in the plasma lead to enhanced heating compared to the homogenous solar wind, and the generation of significant power of oblique waves in the solar wind plasma. The cooling effect due to the expansion is not significant for super-Alfvénic drifts, and is diminished further when we include an inhomogenous background density. We reproduce the ion temperature anisotropy seen in observations and previous models, which is present regardless of the perpendicular cooling due to solar wind expansion. We conclude that small scale inhomogeneities in the inner heliosphere can significantly affect resonant wave ion heating.

Authors: Ozak, N.; Ofman, L.; Vi?as, A.-F.
Projects: None

Publication Status: Accepted for publication
Last Modified: 2015-01-13 14:06
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Three-dimensional multi-fluid model of a coronal streamer belt with a tilted magnetic dipole  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2015-01-13 03:28

Observations of streamers in EUV emission with SOHO/UVCS show dramatic differences in line profiles and latitudinal variations of heavy ions emission compared to hydrogen Ly α emission. In order to use ion emission observations of streamers as the diagnostics of the slow solar wind properties, an adequate model of a streamer including heavy ions is required. We extended previous 2.5D multi-species MHD model of a coronal streamer to 3D spherical geometry, and as the first approach we consider a tilted dipole configuration of the solar magnetic field. The aim of the present study is to test the 3D results by comparing to previous 2.5D model result for a 3D case with moderate departure from azimuthal symmetry. The model includes O^5+ ions with preferential empirical heating and allows calculating their density, velocity and temperature in coronal streamers. We present the first results of our 3D multi-fluid model showing the parameters of protons, electrons and heavy ions (O^5+) at the steady-state solar corona with tilted steamer belt. We find that the 3D results are in qualitative agreement with our previous 2.5D model, and show longitudinal variation in the variables in accordance with the titled streamer belt structure. Properties of heavy coronal ions obtained from the 3D model together with EUV spectroscopic observations of streamers will help understanding the 3D structures of streamers reducing line-of-sight integration ambiguities, and the physics of the slow solar wind, identifying the locations of its sources in the corona.

Authors: L. Ofman, E. Provornikova, L. Abbo, and S. Giordano
Projects: None

Publication Status: Published
Last Modified: 2015-01-13 14:06
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Observations and models of slow solar wind with Mg9+ ions in quiescent streamers  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2012-11-09 07:08

Quiescent streamers are characterized by a peculiar UV signature as pointed out by the results from the observations of the Ultraviolet and Coronograph Spectrometer (UVCS) on board SOHO: the intensity of heavy ion emission lines (such as OVI) show dimmer core relative to the edges. Previous models show that the structure of the heavy ion streamer emission relates to the acceleration regions of the slow solar wind at streamer legs and to gravitational settling processes in the streamer core. Observations of Mg9+ ion EUV emission in coronal streamers at solar minimum were first reported by the UVCS instrument. The Mg X 625A emission is an order of magnitude smaller than the OVI 1032A emission, requiring longer exposures to obtain statistically significant results. Here, MgX coronal observations are analyzed and compared, for the first time, with the solar minimum streamer structure in hydrogen and OVI emissions. We employ the 2.5D three-fluid model, developed previously to study the properties of O5+ ions in streamers, and calculate for the first time the density, temperature, and outflow structure of Mg9+ ions in the solar minimum streamer. The Mg9+ ions are heated by an empirical radial heating function constrained by observations of the kinetic ion temperature obtained from MgX emission line profiles. The detailed structure of Mg9+ density, temperature, and outflow speed determined by the Coulomb momentum and energy exchange as well as electromagnetic interactions with electrons and protons in the three-fluid model of the streamer. The results of the model are in good qualitative agreement with observations, and provide insights on the possible link between the magnetic structure of the streamer, slow solar wind sources, and relative abundances of heavy ions.

Authors: Leon Ofman; Lucia Abbo; Silvio Giordano
Projects:

Publication Status: The Astrophysical Journal, accepted for publication
Last Modified: 2012-11-27 15:07
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Slow magnetosonic waves and fast flows in active region loops  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2012-05-28 08:08

Recent EUV spectroscopic observations indicate that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region (AR) loops. Some of the spectral data were also interpreted as evidence of fast (~100-300 km s-1) quasi-periodic flows. We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) modeling of a bipolar AR that contains impulsively generated waves and flows in coronal loops. The model AR is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified density, with an upflow driven steadily or periodically in localized regions at the footpoints of magnetic loops. The resulting flows along the magnetic field lines of the AR produce higher density loops compared to the surrounding plasma by injection of material into the flux-tubes and the establishment of siphon flow. We find that the impulsive onset of flows with subsonic speeds result in the excitation of damped slow magnetosonic waves that propagate along the loops and coupled nonlinearly driven fast mode waves. The phase speed of the slow magnetosonic waves is close to the coronal sound speed. When the amplitude of the driving pulses is increased we find that slow shock-like wave trains are produced. When the upflows are driven periodically, undamped oscillations are produced with periods determined by the periodicity of the upflows. Based on the results of the 3D MHD model we suggest that the observed slow magnetosonic waves and persistent upflows may be produced by the same impulsive events at the bases of ARs.

Authors: Leon Ofman, Tongjiang Wang, Joseph M. Davila
Projects: None

Publication Status: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal
Last Modified: 2012-05-29 16:21
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SDO/AIA Observation of Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in the Solar Corona  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2011-01-26 14:38

We present observations of the formation, propagation and decay of vortex- shaped features in coronal images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) associated with an eruption starting at about 2:30UT on Apr 8, 2010. The series of vortices formed along the interface between an erupting (dimming) region and the surrounding corona. They ranged in size from several to ten arcseconds, and traveled along the interface at 6-14 km s-1. The features were clearly visible in six out of the seven different EUV wavebands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). Based on the structure, formation, propagation and decay of these features, we identified these features as the first observations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in the corona in EUV. The interpretation is supported by linear analysis and by MHD model of KH instability. We conclude that the instability is driven by the velocity shear between the erupting and closed magnetic field of the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). The shear flow driven instability can play an important role in energy transfer processes in coronal plasma.

Authors: L. Ofman, B.J. Thompson
Projects: SDO-AIA

Publication Status: Submitted to ApJL
Last Modified: 2011-01-27 10:56
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Subject will be restored when possible  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2008-03-27 05:36

Aims. We report the first evidence for transverse waves in coronal multithreaded loops with cool plasma ejected from the chromosphere flowing along the threads. These observations are good candidates for coronal seismology. Methods. We analyzed observations made with Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite in the Ca II H line filter. Results. The oscillations are visible for about 3 periods, with a period lasting about 2 minutes, with weak damping. We see the oscillations in thin threads (~0.5'') of cool plasma flowing in the coronal loops with speeds in the range 74-123 km s-1. Conclusions. Observations indicate that the waves exhibit different properties in the various threads. In some threads, the waves are nearly standing fundamental kink modes with a phase speed of about 1250 km s-1, whereas the dynamics of other threads is consistent with propagating fast magnetosonic waves. Based on the observed wave and loop properties and the assumed active region loop density in the range (1-5)x109 cm-3, the estimated energy flux is sufficient to heat the loops to coronal temperatures, and the average magnetic field in the threads is estimated as 20+-7G.

Authors: L. Ofman and T.J. Wang
Projects: Hinode/SOT

Publication Status: in press
Last Modified: 2008-09-23 21:12
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Three-dimensional MHD Model of Wave Activity in a Coronal Active Region  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2006-05-17 09:53

MHD wave activity associated with a flare was observed in coronal active region AR8270 in Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) by Transition Regions and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) satellite on July 14, 1998. Three dimensional MHD model of the active region field was initialized using National Solar Observatory (NSO) Kitt Peak magnetogram and potential extrapolation of the magnetic field, together with gravitationally stratified density. To model the observed wave activity following the flare, a velocity pulse was launched into the active region. It was found that the global oscillations in the model active region are in good qualitative agreement with observations. The main difference between the observations and the model is in the oscillation of several individual loops that damp on longer time scale, compared to the corresponding magnetic field line oscillation damping in the model.

Authors: L. Ofman
Projects: TRACE

Publication Status: Submitted to ApJ
Last Modified: 2006-05-17 16:08
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Oscillations of hard X-ray flare emission observed by RHESSI  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2006-02-27 14:05

Recent Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations of hard X-ray (> 25 keV) emission from several flares show damped oscillations with periods of 2-4 minutes and damping time of several tens of minutes. We analyze the observations of the January 19, 2005 flare that shows the quasi-period, damped oscillations, and propose a physical mechanism of this phenomena. Namely, we suggest that super-Alfvénic beams in the vicinity of the reconnection region lead to the excitation of the oscillations. The oscillations damp as the flows and the reconnecting magnetic fields dissipate during the decay phase of the flare. We show the results of 2.5D visco-resistive MHD simulations of this mechanism, and find qualitative agreement with RHESSI observations. In addition, we find that the flows destabilize the current sheet which leads to increased reconnection rate compared to the case without the beams.

Authors: L. Ofman, L. Sui
Projects: RHESSI

Publication Status: Astrophysical Journal Letters, in press
Last Modified: 2006-05-17 10:06
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High Frequency Alfvén Waves in Multi-ion Coronal Plasma  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2004-12-09 10:48

We investigate the effects of high frequency (of order ion gyrofrequency) Alfvén and ion-cyclotron waves on ion emission lines by studying the dispersion of these waves in a multi-ion coronal plasma. For this purpose we solve the dispersion relation of the linearized multifluid, and Vlasov equations in a magnetized multi-ion plasma with coronal abundances of heavy ions. We also calculate the dispersion relation using nonlinear one-dimensional hybrid kinetic simulations of the multi-ion plasma. When heavy ions are present the dispersion relation of parallel propagating Alfvén/cyclotron waves exhibits the following branches: right hand polarized nonresonant, and left hand polarized resonant branch for protons, and each ion. We calculate the ratio of ion to proton velocities perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field for each wave modes for typical coronal parameters, and find strong enhancement of the heavy ion perpendicular fluid velocity compared to proton perpendicular fluid velocity. The linear multifluid results agree with linear warm plasma Vlasov results, and with the nonlinear hybrid simulation model. In view of our findings we discuss how the observed nonthermal line broadening of minor ions in coronal holes may relate to the high frequency wave motions.

Authors: L. Ofman, J.M. Davila, V.M. Nakariakov, A.F. Vinas
Projects: None

Publication Status: submitted to JGR
Last Modified: 2004-12-09 10:48
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LOOP DENSITY ENHANCEMENT BY NONLINEAR MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2003-11-24 08:13

We study the possibility that waves in coronal loops can produce density enhancements at their tops. The mechanism involved is the ponderomotive force of standing magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. We study the effect of large amplitude waves in loops first by using a simple second order one-dimensional MHD model for which analytical expressions are available, second by solving the time dependent nonlinear MHD equations in a two-dimensional curved loop model, and finally by solving the MHD equations in a three-dimensional flux tube configuration. Waves are launched by an initial transverse velocity profile in the loop with footpoints fixed in the photosphere. We find that large initial disturbances produce pressure imbalance along the loop, which results in an upflow from its legs. The accumulation of mass at the top of the oscillating loop can produce significant density enhancements for typical coronal conditions. In a later stage, the pressure gradient becomes dominant and inhibits the concentration of mass at the loop top. We find that oscillating loops observed by the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) telescope on board the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) on 1998 July 14 exhibit emission measure enhancements consistent with this mechanism.

Authors: J. Terradas, L. Ofman
Projects: TRACE

Publication Status: submitted to ApJ
Last Modified: 2003-11-24 08:13
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Hot Coronal Loop Oscillations Observed by SUMER: Slow Magnetosonic Wave Damping by Thermal Conduction  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2002-08-14 04:46

Recently, strongly damped Doppler shift oscillations of hot (T> 6 MK) coronal loops were observed with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The oscillations are interpreted as signatures of slow mode magnetosonic waves excited impulsively in the loops. Using 1D MHD code we model the oscillations and the damping of slow magnetosonic waves in a model coronal loop. We find that due to the high temperature of the loops the large thermal conduction, which depends on temperature as T^2.5, leads to rapid damping of the slow waves on a time scale comparable to observations (5.5-29 min). The scaling of the dissipation time with period agrees well with SUMER observations of 35 cases in 17 events. We also find that the decay time due to compressive viscosity alone is an order of magnitude longer than the observed decay times.

Authors: L. Ofman, Tongjiang Wang
Projects:

Publication Status: ApJ, submitted
Last Modified: 2002-09-30 16:48
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Damping Time Scaling of Coronal Loop Oscillations Deduced from TRACEObservations  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2002-07-02 09:30

The damping mechanism of recently discovered coronal loop transverse oscillations provides clues to the mechanism of coronal heating. We determine the scaling of the damping time with the parameters of the loops observed in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE). We find excellent agreement of the scaling power to the power predicted by phase mixing, and poor agreement with the power predicted by the wave leakage, or ideal decay of the cylindrical kink mode mechanisms. Phase mixing leads to rapid dissipation of the Alfvén waves due to the variation of the Alfvén speed across the wavefront and formation of small scales. Our results suggest that the loop oscillations are dissipated by phase mixing with anomalously high viscosity.

Authors: L. Ofman, M. J. Aschwanden
Projects:

Publication Status: submitted to ApJ Letters
Last Modified: 2002-07-02 10:21
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Interaction of EIT Waves with Coronal Active Regions  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2001-11-12 10:10

Large scale coronal waves associated with flares were first observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT). We present the first 3D MHD modeling of this phenomena in order to investigate the interaction of the EIT waves with active regions, and the possibility of destabilization of an active region by these waves. The active region is modeled by an initially force-free, bipolar magnetic configuration with gravitationally stratified density. We include finite thermal pressure, and resistive dissipation in our model. The EIT wave is launched at the boundary of the region, as short time velocity pulse that travels with the local fast magnetosonic speed towards the active region. We find that the EIT wave induces transient currents in the active region, and the resulting Lorentz force lead to the dynamic distortion of the magnetic field, and to the generation of secondary waves. The resulting magnetic compression of the plasma induces flows in the active region, which are particularly strong in the current-carrying active region. We investigate the effect of the magnetic field configuration, and find that current carrying configuration is destabilized by the impact of the wave. Analysis of the 3D interaction between EIT waves and active regions can serve as a diagnostic of the active region coronal magnetic structure and stability.

Authors: L. Ofman, B.J. Thompson
Projects: Soho-EIT

Publication Status: ApJ, submitted
Last Modified: 2004-07-14 08:23
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Chromospheric Leakage of Alfvén Waves in Coronal Loops  

Leon Ofman   Submitted: 2001-11-12 10:04

Recently observed rapid damping of coronal loop oscillations generated discussion regarding the physical mechanism responsible for the damping, with leakage into the chromosphere as one of the possible mechanisms. I study the leakage of Alfvén waves into the chromospheric footpoints of a coronal loop using the nonlinear visco-resistive 1.5D MHD model. The waves were launched by an initial transverse velocity profile in the loop. I find that the leakage time of long wavelength transverse oscillations, such as the ones observed recently by TRACE is nearly an order of magnitude longer then the observed damping time of the oscillations. I also find that short wavelength perturbations will leak on shorter time scale, in agreement with linear theory. I conclude that the observed damping of the long wavelength oscillations is not due to leakage into the chromosphere for the loop observed recently by TRACE. However, depending on particular chromospheric and coronal properties, chromospheric leakage may be significant in some events of coronal loop oscillations.

Authors: L. Ofman
Projects: None

Publication Status: ApJ, submitted
Last Modified: 2006-08-06 07:10
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Abstracts by Author
Quasi-periodic Counter-propagating Fast Magnetosonic Wave Trains from Neighboring Flares: SDO/AIA Observations and 3D MHD Modeling
Three dimensional MHD Modeling of Vertical Kink Oscillations in an Active Region Plasma Curtain
Relative drifts and temperature anisotropies of protons and $\alpha$ particles in the expanding solar wind -- 2.5D hybrid simulations
Ion Heating in Inhomogeneous Expanding Solar Wind Plasma: The Role of Parallel and Oblique Ion-Cyclotron Waves
Three-dimensional multi-fluid model of a coronal streamer belt with a tilted magnetic dipole
Observations and models of slow solar wind with Mg9+ ions in quiescent streamers
Slow magnetosonic waves and fast flows in active region loops
SDO/AIA Observation of Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in the Solar Corona
Subject will be restored when possible
Three-dimensional MHD Model of Wave Activity in a Coronal Active Region
Oscillations of hard X-ray flare emission observed by RHESSI
High Frequency Alfven Waves in Multi-ion Coronal Plasma
LOOP DENSITY ENHANCEMENT BY NONLINEAR MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES
Hot Coronal Loop Oscillations Observed by SUMER: Slow Magnetosonic Wave Damping by Thermal Conduction
Damping Time Scaling of Coronal Loop Oscillations Deduced from TRACEObservations
Interaction of EIT Waves with Coronal Active Regions
Chromospheric Leakage of Alfven Waves in Coronal Loops

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