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Bayesian approach for modeling solar active region global magnetic parameters  

Mariano Poisson   Submitted: 2022-07-13 21:31

Context. Active regions (ARs) appear in the solar atmosphere as a consequence of the emergence of magnetic flux tubes. The presence of elongated magnetic polarities in line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms indicates the existence of twist in the flux tubes forming them. These polarity elongations, called magnetic tongues, bias the measurement of AR characteristics obtained during their emergence phase (e.g. their tilt angle and magnetic flux, among others). In particular, obtaining a good estimation of the tilt angle evolution plays a key role in constraining flux-transport dynamo models. Aims. In this work we aim to estimate the intrinsic properties of the twisted flux tubes, or flux ropes, that form ARs by quantitatively comparing observed LOS magnetograms with synthetic ones derived from a toroidal magnetic flux tube model. Methods. For this reason, we develop a Bayesian inference method to obtain the statistical distributions of the inferred model parameters. As an example, we apply the method to NOAA AR 10268. Next, we test the results using a synthetic-AR generator to quantify the effect of small scale perturbations over the inferred parameter distributions. Results. We conclude that this method can significantly remove the effects of magnetic tongues on the derived AR global characteristics, providing a better knowledge of the intrinsic properties of the emerging flux rope. Conclusions. These results provide a framework for future analysis of the physical properties of emerging ARs using Bayesian statistics.

Authors: M. Poisson, F. Grings, C.H. Mandrini, M. López-Fuentes, P. Démoulin
Projects: SoHO-MDI

Publication Status: In press
Last Modified: 2022-07-15 09:51
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Active-Region Tilt Angles from White-Light Images and Magnetograms: The Role of Magnetic Tongues  

Mariano Poisson   Submitted: 2020-04-17 08:25

The presence of elongations in active region (AR) polarities, called magnetic tongues, are mostly visible during their emergence phase. AR tilts have been measured thoroughly using long-term white-light (WL) databases, sometimes combined with magnetic field information. Since the influence of magnetic tongues on WL tilt measurements has not been taken into account before, we aim to investigate their role in tilt-angle values and to compare them with those derived from LOS magnetograms. We apply four methods to compute the tilt angle of generally bipolar ARs: one applies the k-means algorithm to WL data, a second one includes the magnetic field sign of the polarities to WL data, and a third one uses the magnetic flux-weighted center of each polarity. The tilt values computed in any of these ways are affected by the presence of magnetic tongues. Therefore, we apply the newly developed Core Field Fit Estimator (CoFFE) method to separate the magnetic flux in the tongues from that in the AR core. We compare the four computed tilt-angle values, as well as these with the ones reported in long-term WL databases. For ARs with low magnetic flux tongues the different methods report consistent tilt-angle values. But for ARs with high flux tongues there are noticeable discrepancies between all methods indicating that magnetic tongues affect differently WL and magnetic data. However, in general, CoFFE achieves a better estimation of the main bipole tilt because it removes both the effect of tongues as well as the emergence of secondary bipoles when it occurs in between the main bipole magnetic polarities.

Authors: M. Poisson, P. Démoulin, C.H. Mandrini, M.C. López Fuentes
Projects: SoHO-MDI

Publication Status: Accepted for publication
Last Modified: 2020-04-17 12:01
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Correcting the effect of magnetic tongues on the tilt angle of bipolar active regions  

Mariano Poisson   Submitted: 2020-01-02 07:18

The magnetic polarities of bipolar active regions (ARs) exhibit elongations in line-of-sight magnetograms during their emergence. These elongations are referred to as magnetic tongues and attributed to the presence of twist in the emerging magnetic flux-ropes (FRs) that form ARs. The presence of magnetic tongues affects the measurement of any AR characteristic that depends on its magnetic flux distribution. The AR tilt-angle is one of them. We aim to develop a method to isolate and remove the flux associated with the tongues to determine the AR tilt-angle with as much precision as possible. As a first approach, we used a simple emergence model of a FR. This allowed us to develop and test our aim based on a method to remove the effects of magnetic tongues. Then, using the experience gained from the analysis of the model, we applied our method to photospheric observations of bipolar ARs that show clear magnetic tongues. Using the developed procedure on the FR model, we can reduce the deviation in the tilt estimation by more than 60%. Next we illustrate the performance of the method with four examples of bipolar ARs selected for their large magnetic tongues. The new method efficiently removes the spurious rotation of the bipole. This correction is mostly independent of the method input parameters and significant since it is larger than all the estimated tilt errors. We have developed a method to isolate the magnetic flux associated with the FR core during the emergence of bipolar ARs. This allows us to compute the AR tilt-angle and its evolution as precisely as possible. We suggest that the high dispersion observed in the determination of AR tilt-angles in studies that massively compute them from line-of sight magnetograms can be partly due to the existence of magnetic tongues whose presence is not sufficiently acknowledged.

Authors: M. Poisson, M.C. López Fuentes, C.H. Mandrini, P. Démoulin, C. MacCormack
Projects: SoHO-MDI

Publication Status: Accepted for publication
Last Modified: 2020-01-02 23:41
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Evidence of Twisted flux-tube Emergence in Active Regions  

Mariano Poisson   Submitted: 2015-08-05 13:14

Elongated magnetic polarities are observed during the emergence phase of bipolar active regions (ARs). These extended features, called magnetic tongues, are interpreted as a consequence of the azimuthal component of the magnetic flux in the toroidal flux-tubes that form ARs. We develop a new systematic and user-independent method to identify AR tongues. Our method is based on determining and analyzing the evolution of the AR main polarity inversion line (PIL). The effect of the tongues is quantified by measuring the acute angle [ tau] between the orientation of the PIL and the direction orthogonal to the AR main bipolar axis. We apply a simple model to simulate the emergence of a bipolar AR. This model lets us interpret the effect of magnetic tongues on parameters that characterize ARs ( e.g. the PIL inclination and the tilt angles, and their evolution). In this idealized kinematic emergence model, τ is a monotonically increasing function of the twist and has the same sign as the magnetic helicity. We systematically apply our procedure to a set of bipolar ARs that were observed emerging in line-of-sight magnetograms over eight years. For most of the cases studied, the tongues only have a small influence on the AR tilt angle since tongues have a much lower magnetic flux than the more concentrated main polarities. From the observed evolution of tau, corrected for the temporal evolution of the tilt angle and its final value when the AR is fully emerged, we estimate the average number of turns in the subphotospherically emerging flux-rope. These values for the 41 observed ARs are below unity, except for one. This indicates that subphotospheric flux-ropes typically have a low amount of twist, i.e. highly twisted flux-tubes are rare. Our results demonstrate that the evolution of the PIL is a robust indicator of the presence of tongues and constrains the amount of twist in emerging flux-tubes.

Authors: Mariano Poisson, Cristina H. Mandrini, Pascal Démoulin, Marcelo López Fuentes
Projects: None

Publication Status: Published
Last Modified: 2015-08-06 08:46
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Abstracts by Author
Bayesian approach for modeling solar active region global magnetic parameters
Active-Region Tilt Angles from White-Light Images and Magnetograms: The Role of Magnetic Tongues
Correcting the effect of magnetic tongues on the tilt angle of bipolar active regions
Evidence of Twisted flux-tube Emergence in Active Regions

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