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Center-to-Limb Variability of Hot Coronal EUV Emissions During Solar Flares  

Edward Thiemann   Submitted: 2018-01-08 09:48

It is generally accepted that densities of quiet sun and active region plasma are sufficiently low to justify the optically thin approximation, and it is commonly used in the analysis of line emissions from plasma in the solar corona. However, densities of solar flare loops are substantially higher, compromising the optically thin approximation. This study begins with a radiative transfer model that uses typical solar flare densities and geometries to show that hot coronal emission lines are not generally optically thin. Further, the model demonstrates that the observed line intensity should exhibit center-to-limb variability (CTLV), with flares observed near the limb being dimmer than those occurring near disk-center. The model predictions are validated with an analysis of over 200 flares observed by EVE on SDO that uses 6 lines, with peak formation temperatures between 8.9 and 15.8 MK, to show limb flares are systematically dimmer than disk-center flares. The data are then used to show that the electron column density along the line-of-sight typically increases by 1.76 x 1019cm-2 for limb flares over the disk-center flare value. It is shown that CTLV of hot coronal emissions reduces the amount of ionizing radiation propagating into the solar system, and changes the relative intensities of lines and bands commonly used for spectral analysis.

Authors: Edward Thiemann, Phillip Chamberlin, Francis Eparvier, Luke Epp
Projects: SDO-EVE

Publication Status: Accepted by Solar Physics
Last Modified: 2018-01-09 11:30
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A time dependent relation between EUV solar flare light-curves from lines with differing formation temperatures  

Edward Thiemann   Submitted: 2018-01-08 09:45

Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar flare emissions evolve in time as the emitting plasma heats and then cools. Although accurately modeling this evolution has been historically difficult, especially for empirical relationships, it is important for understanding processes at the Sun, as well as for their influence on planetary atmospheres. With a goal to improve empirical flare models, a new simple empirical expression is derived to predict how cool emissions will evolve based on the evolution of a hotter emission. This technique is initially developed by studying 12 flares in detail observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Then, over 1100 flares observed by EVE are analyzed to validate these relationships. The Cargill and Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops (EBTEL) flare cooling models are used to show that this empirical relationship implies the energy radiated by a population of hotter formed ions is approximately proportional to the energy exciting a population of cooler formed ions emitting when the peak formation temperatures of the two lines are up to 72% of each other and above 2 MK. These results have practical implications for improving flare irradiance empirical modeling and for identifying key emission lines for future monitoring of flares for space weather operations; and also provide insight into the cooling processes of flare plasma.

Authors: Edward M.B. Thiemann, Francis G. Eparvier, Thomas N. Woods
Projects: SDO-EVE

Publication Status: Published in Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate
Last Modified: 2018-01-09 11:30
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Center-to-Limb Variability of Hot Coronal EUV Emissions During Solar Flares
A time dependent relation between EUV solar flare light-curves from lines with differing formation temperatures

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