Over 54 years of hourly mean value of solar wind velocity from 27 Nov. 1963 to 31 Dec. 2017 are used to investigate characteristics of the rotation period of solar wind through auto-correlation analysis. Solar wind of high velocity is found to rotate faster than low-velocity wind, while its rotation rate increases with velocity increasing, but in contrast for solar wind of low velocity, its rotation rate decreases with velocity increasing. Our analysis shows that solar wind of a higher velocity statistically possesses a faster rotation rate for the entire solar wind. The yearly rotation rate of solar wind velocity does not follow the Schwable cycle, but it is significantly negatively correlated to yearly sunspot number when it leads by 3 years. Physical explanations are proposed to these findings.
Authors: KJ Li, W Feng
Publication Status: Accepted for publication in MNRAS
Last Modified: 2019-09-04 13:20
Why Does the Solar Corona Abnormally Rotate Faster Than the Photosphere?
Coronal heating is a big question for modern astronomy. Daily measurement of 985 solar spectral irradiances (SSIs) at the spectral intervals 1-39 nm and 116-2416 nm during March 1 2003 to October 28 2017 is utilized to investigate characteristics of solar rotation in the solar atmosphere by means of the Lomb - Scargle periodogram method to calculate their power spectra. The rotation period of coronal plasma is obtained to be 26.3 days, and that of the solar atmosphere at the bottom of the photosphere modulated by magnetic structures is 27.5 days. Here we report for the first time that unexpectedly the coronal atmosphere is found to rotate faster than the underlying photosphere. When time series of SSIs are divided into different cycles, and the ascending and descending periods of a solar cycle, rotation rate in the corona is also found to be larger than that in the photosphere, and this actually gives hidden evidence: it is small-scale magnetic activity that heats the corona.