We analyse the topology of photospheric magnetic fields and sub-photospheric flows of several active regions (ARs) that are observed during the peak to descending phase of the solar cycle 23. Our analysis shows clear evidence of hemispheric preferences in all the topological parameters such as the magnetic, current and kinetic helicities, and the 'curl-divergence'. We found that 68%(67%) ARs in the northern (southern) hemisphere with negative (positive) magnetic helicities. Same hemispheric preference sign is found for the current helicities in 68%(68%) ARs. The hemispheric preferences are found to exist statistically for all the time except in few ARs observed during the peak and the end phases of the solar cycle. This means that magnetic fields are dominantly left(right)-helical in scales smaller than individual ARs of northern(southern) hemisphere. We found that magnetic and current helicities parameters show equator-ward propagation similar to the sunspot cycle. The kinetic helicity showed similar hemispheric trend to that of magnetic and current helicity parameters. There are 65%(56%) ARs with negative (positive) kinetic helicity as well as divergence-curl, at the depth of 2.4 Mm, in the northern (southern) hemisphere. The hemispheric distribution of the kinetic helicity becomes more evident at larger depths, e.g., 69%(67%) at the depth of 12.6 Mm. Similar hemispheric trend of kinetic helicity to that of the current helicity supports the mean field dynamo model. We also found that the hemispheric distribution of all the parameters increases with the field strength of ARs. The topology of photospheric magnetic fields and near surface sub-photospheric flow fields did not show good association but the correlation between them enhances with depths which could be indicating more aligned flows at deeper layers of ARs.
Authors: R. A. Maurya and A. Ambastha
Publication Status: Accepted for publication in Solar Physics
Last Modified: 2020-06-27 21:00