Making a Horizontal Sundial for 45 Degrees Latitude

Materials: Intermediate

for each sundial you will need...

If you want to make your sundial into a necklace or keychain you might want to drill a hole in the checker, or have someone drill the hole for you, to pass the string through. OR you could screw an eye hook into the top and pass the string through there. BE CREATIVE, and enjoy!

On a sundial, the gnomon is the piece of the sundial which casts its shadow onto the sundial face. In our project we will use a copper nail as the gnomon.

For a horizontal sundial we want the gnomon to be aligned with the North Celestial Pole so that the sun will rotate around it when we face our sundial due north.

Preparing the wooden checker

To align our gnomon along this axis we must position it such that it makes an angle equal to the latitude angle where it will be used with the horizontal face of the sundial. (See below)

The easiest way to get the nail into the wooden checker at this angle is to do the following. First, hammer the nail straight into the center of your wooden checker making sure not to go through the back side.

On an index card draw a line that is inclined from the bottom of the card at an angle equal to your latitude.

Hammer the nail from the side so that it begins to bend over.

Place the index card behind the bent nail, with the start of the line at the base of the nail. Continue to bend the nail over until it is at the same angle as the line you have on your index card.

Now the nail should be making an angle equal to your latitude with the base of the checker. It should look like the image above.

If the nail become loose, a little wood glue at the base should secure it.

Drill a hole in the wooden checker on the opposite side from where the nail is pointing. Make sure to drill the hole large enough so that the cord you have chosen will fit through it.

If you do this activity with a large group of young children it is often best to prepare the checkers up to this point ahead of time.

You are now ready to put on the hourlines for the sundial.

Making the hourlines

On a horizontal sundial the position of the lines that indicate what hour it is also depend on the latitude. In this lesson we will use a protractor to measure the angles needed to create the image seen here.

To begin construction of the hourline template, place your protractor on a sheet of paper such that the straight edge is near the bottom. Draw a horizontal line on the paper using the bottom edge of the protractor. Without moving the protractor make a pencil tick at the 90 degree mark, which should be at the top of your protractor. Now turn the protractor sideways and use the long edge to draw a vertical line from the tick mark down to the horizontal line. You have just created the noon, and six o'clock lines!

You can now use the table on the right to draw each hourline at the appropriate angle from the verticle noon line. You do not need to pay attention the the hour angle column. If you would like to learn how to calculate these angles yourself go to the hourline section of the advanced lesson.

Begin by placing your protractor sideways on your paper so that it looks like the letter D. You want the long edge along the vertical line and the middle of that long edge where the verticle and horizontal lines cross. If you look at the angle markings on your protractor there should be a zero written at the top, along your verticle line and a 90 written on the right where your horizontal line is drawn. Hold the protractor very still and use the numbers written along the curve of the protractor to make a tick with your pencil at each of the angle values in the last column of the table to the right.

Once you have made all the marks to the right of the verticle line, turn your protractor around so that the curve is now going to the left. Line up the zero with the verticle line and the 90 with your horizontal line and repeat the process of making tick marks at each angle value from the last column in the table above.

Now use the straight edge of your protractor to connect each tick mark to the intersection of the horizontal and vertical lines. You final template should look like the one at the beginning of this section.

Once you have a hard copy of the image above, place your wooden checker on top of the image such that the center of the checker, where the nail hole is, is directly over the intersection of the horizontal and vertical lines. The horizontal line, marked with a six on each side, should run underneath your checker exactly across the center.

Without shifting the checker, rotate it until the head of the nail is pointing up the 12 o'clock line, as seen in the image to the left.

Holding the checker very still, make 13 pencil marks on the top face of the wood, each mark inline with the appropriate hourline. It is best to start with pencil so you can redo any mistakes.

Once you have made all of the hour marks go over them in pen and write in the appropriate numbers. Because the face of our sundial is so small, it is best to include only a few of the hour numbers, as in the image to the right.

Finish your sundial by threading the drilled hole with some cording and tie it off to the desired length.

The moment of truth!

To use your new sundial, take it outside on a sunny day, hold it perfectly horizontal, and point the head of the gnomon (nail) due north. The shadow cast by the gnomon should fall on the appropriate hourline.


To compare the time on the sundial you construct to the time on a clock, there are several adjustments which should be made. The North American Sundial Society has a nice page which discusses these adjustments. Visit: Sundial Time vs. Clock Time .

During daylight savings time you will need to add one hour to the time on your sundial in order to agree with local "clock" time.

Sign the YPOP Guestbook!

YPOP Homepage Sundials Learning Activities

Lesson designed by Michelle B. Larson