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Finite system-size effectrs in self-organizing criticality systems View all abstracts by submitter

Markus J. Aschwanden   Submitted: 2021-06-11 12:37

We explore upper limits for the largest avalanches or catastrophes in nonlinear energy dissipation systems governed by self-organized criticality. We generalize the idealized “straight” power-law size distribution and Pareto distribution functions in order to accommodate incomplete sampling, limited instrumental sensitivity, finite system-size effects, and “Black Swan” and “Dragon King” extreme events. Our findings are as follows. (i) Solar flares show no finite system-size limits up to L~200 Mm, but solar flare durations reveal an upper flare duration limit of hr. (ii) Stellar flares observed with Kepler exhibit inertial ranges of E ≈ 1034–1037 erg, finite system- size ranges of E ≈ 1037–1038 erg, and extreme events at E ≈ (1–5) × 1038 erg. (iii) The maximum flare energies of different spectral type stars (M, K, G, F, A, giants) reveal a positive correlation with the stellar radius, which indicates a finite system-size limit imposed by the stellar surface area. Fitting our finite system-size models to terrestrial data sets (earthquakes, wildfires, city sizes, blackouts, terrorism, words, surnames, web links) yields evidence (in half of the cases) for finite system-size limits and extreme events, which can be modeled with dual power-law size distributions.

Authors: Aschwanden, M.J.
Projects: SDO-AIA

Publication Status: Aschwanden,M.J. 2021, ApJ 909:69
Last Modified: 2021-06-12 00:56
Go to main E-Print page  Self-organized criticality in stellar flares  Global energetics of solar flares. XII. Energy scaling laws  Edit Entry  Download Preprint  Submitter's Homepage Delete Entry 

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