CSHKP model is a model of solar flares that explains their observable features
on the basis of magnetic reconnection. The basic idea of this model was
proposed and developed by the following people:
Carmichael, Sturrock, Hirayama, Kopp and Pneuman
(Carmichael 1964; Sturrock 1966; Hirayama 1974; Kopp & Pneuman 1976),
which is why this model is named CSHKP after these five scientists.
The schematic viewgraph below shows how this model explains those features
of solar flares observed in Halpha, soft and hard X-rays (Magara et al. 1996).
The picture below shows an example of LDE flares taken by the SXT telescope on
The following QuickTime movie shows an example of two-ribbon flares. This flare was
on August 29 1997 at
Carmichael, H. 1964, in AAS-NASA Symposium on Solar Flares, ed. W. N. Hess (NASA SP-50), 451
Hirayama, T. 1974, Sol. Phys., 34, 323
Kopp, R. A., & Pneuman, G. W. 1976, Sol. Phys., 50, 85
Magara, T., Mineshige, S., Yokoyama, T., & Shibata, K.
1996, ApJ, 466, 1054
Sturrock, P. A. 1966, Nature, 211, 695